John Kotter's Eight Stage Model

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Abstract
This paper discusses John Kotter’s Eight-Stage Change Model and how it can be used as a guide when implementing change within an organization. The roles of various stakeholders including senior and emerging leaders, managers and employees throughout the eight stages are defined. In addition, factors which can contribute to a failed organization change initiative are discussed.

Transforming an organization from a sub-optimizing enterprise of independently functioning departments to an organization that embraces cross-functional teams and customer centric integrated processes that focuses on delivering quality products and services requires a well defined and implemented plan of action. In addition, transforming an organization also requires a large amount time, financial resources and most importantly risk. Published success rates of some change management programs are as low as 10% (Oakland & Tanner, 2007). Shrinking profit margins and increasing competition both globally and locally require initiatives that are implemented by organizations to deliver the desired results. A number of organizational change models are available for an organization to use when transforming an organization. John Kotter’s Eight-Stage Change Model provides a framework that allows an organization the time needed to implement change as well as inclusion and participation of all stakeholders throughout the organizational transformation.

John Kotter’s Eight-Stage Change Model is a “comprehensive implementation model and offers guidance for large-scale change management efforts” (Stragalas, 2010, p. 31). The Kotter Change Model does not provide organizations with a step by step approach, but with a broad framework in which an organization can design the phases to best meet its needs and corporate culture. In addition, Kotter’s model acknowledges that time is needed for an organization to accept and embrace change and truly transform. The first three stages of...
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