01. Overview of job satisfaction
Importance of employee satisfaction took great interest from researchers and management of organizations because it has its own influences upon an employee’s social as well as professional life. According to Mitchell and Larson (1987) job satisfaction cannot be defined properly in to several statements, they experienced more than 3000 studies upon the job satisfaction and after that they commented. Lock (1976) placed a definition of job satisfaction which is admired by many of researchers “Pleasurable emotional state resulting from the perception of one’s job as fulfilling or allowing the fulfillment of one’s important job value” The concept of this definition is based on the psychology of an employee, and the research tried to attach the satisfaction element with the emotions and feelings of an employee resulting from the nature and description of a job. Other researchers also placed their findings regarding job satisfaction that are following. According to Hammer and Organ (1978) there are five basic reasons that shapes a sense of satisfaction in employees. these are social needs, mental and physical approach of an employee, comparison between higher job satisfaction and lower job satisfaction, and the fifth one is the relaxation during job timing. So it is much important for an organization to keep their employees happy and satisfied to maintain the loyalty of its customers because employees are the only assets that can shape the sales through keeping theme self alive with their personal relations. A vast range of researchers worked upon the concept of job satisfaction to derive a specific definition of job satisfaction but could not cot it in to proper words. Here different references have been taken to generalize to concept of job satisfaction by making a comparison of old time researcher’s findings and new researcher’s work on job satisfaction. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as it is a emotional and psychological approach of a person toward his job where his expectations are exactly match by the job he or she is doing, and without any fear they say that they are glade to do this job. Although job satisfaction is influenced by the external and internal factors but if a person is internally willing full to do a job then he or she can do that without feeling something troubling to theme during their job. According to Vroom (1964) job satisfaction is linked with the employees behavior toward his job and the efficient approach of an employee toward his job status that he or she is holding in an organization is called job satisfaction. This research is basically following the Herzberg two factor theory to measure the turnover ratio in NGOs. And by following that theory researcher analyzed that motivation is the substance of satisfaction. According to Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy (1959) of needs theory when all the needs are satisfied then they do not remain a need and their fulfillment creates a sense of motivation in employees. According to this theory motivation is dependent to the satisfaction. Job satisfaction is taken as the independent variable to the research and turnover is independent. Motivation is taken as mediating variable to check its consequences upon turnover. Many of researchers tried to explore the relationship between job satisfaction, motivation and turnover but it is still needed to perform more study on this topic. 1.2 Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Employee turnover
1.2.1 Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction can be observed and evaluate by the reference of Herzberg’s (1959) theories that job satisfaction is an outcome of motivators that plays role to make employees satisfied and hygiene’s that creates a sense of satisfaction in employees. Job satisfaction is an essential element in an organization that contributes for the success and failure of organization. Satisfaction and motivation both variables are interlink with each other, in...