Ans. 2.2 HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION
The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). He revived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes that Job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances. That causes a person to say. “I m satisfied with my job”. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job, management, personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953) considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content, identification with the co., financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne study. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity.
These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages.
The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction.
It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.
Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theory
2.3 IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION
* Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.
* Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behavior.
* Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life.
* This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one another. Thus it can be said that, “A happy worker is a productive worker.”
* It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.
2.4 IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION
Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the...