Job Insecurity in South African Organizations

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Job insecurity has been conceptualised widely in the international literature. As early as 1965, researchers and writers identified job insecurity as a phenomenon to be considered in the changing world of work .Throughout the literature, job insecurity has been conceptualized from two distinct perspectives; namely global and multidimensional. The global perspective underwrites the assumption that job insecurity can be conceptualized as the overall concern about the future of one’s job. The literature shows the use of this conceptualisation in the context of change or crises, such as political change, mergers or reorganisations. In these cases, job insecurity is normally considered to be the phase prior to unemployment Multidimensional conceptualisations conversely hold the viewpoint that job insecurity is a more complex phenomenon than only the fear of losing a job and includes dimensions such as the fear of losing job features, including job stability, positive performance appraisals and promotions . The wide range of conceptualisations in the literature shows the importance and relevance of this phenomenon to the industrial and business environment. Many researchers and leaders in the academic field led the search to arrive at a common conceptualisation of job insecurity and to embed it into a structured model Up to this point; no single conceptualisation or model has been developed and commonly accepted. after an extensive literature review, came to the conclusion that much still needs to be done in order to understand the full extent of the nature of job insecurity and to develop psychometrically valid and reliable measures. Studying the conceptualisation of job insecurity from a global and multidimensional perspective in the international literature led to the identification of five common themes in its conceptualisation, as discussed in the following sections.

The responses of the 40 participants to the fifteen (13) questions stated in the questionnaire were keyed into the system and the statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS) applied on the data.

As expected almost an uncountable number of results, indices, frequency distributions, chi-square correlations, contingency tables, P-values, tests Statistics, etc were generated with several interactions.

Top on the list of information and data generated were frequency tables numbering about ninety (90) representing the distribution of responses to each of the questions and sub-questions. Key among these frequency distribution tables is the ranking of the various key Effects of job insecurity in private organization confronting the employees and job seekers in the country and internationally. Table 4.1 shows the distribution of the forms of the fourty (40) respondent by Age that participated in the study while table 4.2 shows the distribution of the marital status of the Respondents involved in the study.

4.1 Distribution of the respondents by Age

Table 4.1 Distribution of the respondents by Age

|Age |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative Percent | |20-30 |16 |40.0 |40.0 | |30-40 |20 |50.0 |90.0 | |40-50 |4 |10.0 |100.0 | |Total |40 |100.0 | |

Table 4.1 illustrates that 40%(16) of the respondents were of the age bracket 20-30 years, 50%(20) were of the age bracket 30-40 years and 10%(4) were of the age bracket 40-50 This can also be illustrated using a chart as shown in the figure below. [pic]

Most of the participants that took part in the survey were employed and fall in the age bracket 30-40

4.2 Distribution of the Respondents by Marital status

Table 4.2 Distribution of the respondents by Marital status

|Marital status...
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