There are three basic methods of job evaluation: (1) ranking, (2) classification, (3) factor comparison. While many variations of these methods exist in practice, the three basic approaches are described here.
Perhaps the simplest method of job evaluation is the ranking method. According to this method, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in order of their value or merit to the organization. Jobs also can be arranged according to the relative difficulty in performing them. The jobs are examined as a whole rather than on the basis of important factors in the job; and the job at the top of the list has the highest value and obviously the job at the bottom of the list will have the lowest value.
Jobs are usually ranked in each department and then the department rankings are combined to develop an organizational ranking. The following table is a hypothetical illustration of ranking of jobs.
Table: Array of Jobs according to the Ranking Method
Rank Monthly salaries
1. Accountant Rs 3,000
2. Accounts clerk Rs 1,800
3. Purchase assistant Rs 1,700
4. Machine-operator Rs 1,400
5. Typist Rs 900
6. Office boy Rs 600
The variation in payment of salaries depends on the variation of the nature of the job performed by the employees. The ranking method is simple to understand and practice and it is best suited for a small organization. Its simplicity, however, works to its disadvantage in big organizations because rankings are difficult to develop in a large, complex organization. Moreover, this kind of ranking is highly subjective in nature and may offend many employees. Therefore, a more scientific and fruitful way of job evaluation is called for.
According to this method, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are established and jobs are assigned to these classifications. This method places groups of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may include office, clerical, managerial, personnel, etc. Following is a brief description of such a classification in an office.
(a) Class I - Executives: Further classification under this category may be Office manager, Deputy office manager, Office superintendent, Departmental supervisor, etc.
(b) Class II - Skilled workers: Under this category may come the Purchasing assistant, Cashier, Receipts clerk, etc.
(c) Class III - Semiskilled workers: Under this category may come Stenotypists, Machine-operators, Switchboard operators, etc.
(d) Class IV - Semiskilled workers: This category comprises Daftaris, File clerks, Office boys, etc.
The job classification method is less subjective when compared to the earlier ranking method. The system is very easy to understand and acceptable to almost all employees without hesitation. One strong point in favor of the method is that it takes into account all the factors that a job comprises. This system can be effectively used for a variety of jobs.
The weaknesses of the job classification method are:
Even when the requirements of different jobs differ, they may be combined into a single category, depending on the status a job carries.
It is difficult to write all-inclusive descriptions of a grade.
The method oversimplifies sharp differences between different jobs and different grades.
When individual job descriptions and grade descriptions do not match well, the evaluators have the tendency to classify the job using their subjective judgments.
Factor Comparison Method
A more systematic and scientific method of job evaluation is the factor comparison method. Though it is the most complex method of all, it is consistent and appreciable. Under this method, instead of ranking complete jobs, each job is...