Job Design

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Introduction
What is job design? Job design means to decide the contents of a job. It fixes the duties and responsibilities of the job, the methods of doing the job and the relationships between the job holder (manager) and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues. According to business dictionary.com job design is a work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise. Brief history of traditional approaches to job design; Taylorism, also known as scientific management, is a foundation for management and managerial decisions. Frederick Taylor developed this theory in an effort to develop a “science” for every job within an organization. Taylorism principles

* Create a standard method for each job.
* Successfully select and hire proper workers.
* Effectively train these workers
* Support these workers.
Hertzberg\'s Motivation-Hygiene theory attempts to uncover psychological needs of employees and enhance employee satisfaction. In regards to this theory employers are encouraged to design jobs that enhance and motivate employees beyond simply meeting a daily or weekly quota. This theory highlights the importance of rewards systems and monitoring when and how employees are rewarded. Simple recognition is often enough to motivate employees and increase job satisfaction. More effective jobs can be created when specific goals are established. Goal setting theory as described by Edwin Locke mainly focuses on the motivational properties of task goals. Task goals can be highly motivating when set and managed properly. If a company wants to implement goal setting theory with regards to job design than a reasonable job criteria and description must be established. Current approaches to job design; Technology and the flattening of the global economy have contributed greatly to the changes we now see in jobs and job content across the world. We now recognize that a person presented with quality meaningful work is more likely to do that work well. Because of this insight, job design now presently takes a couple of prominent forms. The first of which is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This job design practice is called Socio-Technical Systems (STS) approach. Another modern job design theory is the Job Characteristics Model (JCM), which maintains five important elements that motivate workers and performance. Socio-Technical Systems (STS) approach; This is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This approach has the following guiding principles: * The design of the organization must fit its goals.

* Employees must be actively involved in designing the structure of the organization. * Control of variances in production or service must be undertaken as close to their source as possible. * Subsystems must be designed around relatively self-contained and recognizable units of work. * Support systems must fit in with the design of the organization. * The design should allow for a high quality of working life. * Changes should continue to be made as necessary to meet the changing environmental pressures

Job Characteristics Model (JCM); This model maintains five important elements that motivate workers and performance: * Skill variety
* Task identity
* Task significance
* Autonomy
* Job feedback
The individual elements are then proposed to lead to positive outcomes through three psychological states: * Experienced meaningfulness
* Experienced...
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