Job Descriptions

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MID-TERM EXAM

1. How important is job analysis to the development of job descriptions and job specifications? Discuss. Job analysis is important to the development of job descriptions and specifications because it needs to be formed before the job description and specifications.

2. What recommendations are given for improving committee effectiveness? They are having competent members, having committee properly charged, selecting or electing a competent chairperson, and recognizing/rewarding committee accomplishments.

3. Name the steps in the personnel management process. How does each step relate to the other steps? They are staffing, human resource planning, and auditing human resources. Each step is responsible for the success or failure of the next step.

4. Distinguish between job description and job specification. Job description is a written statement of all the duties and responsibilities to be performed on a particular job and job specification is a written statement of the personal qualities an individual should possess to perform a particular job.

5. List the steps in human resource planning (HRP).
They are determine strategic operations, establish the time standard for reaching objectives, review internal and external environmental factors that affect staffing needs, project human talents/skills needed for achieving strategic objectives, audit human resources in the organization, determine human resource needs in the short-run and long-run to meet projected needs, and plan a program of recruitment and selection to fulfill human resource needs.

6. Discuss the meaning of motivation and the 3 conditions which must exist for employees to become highly motivated. Motivation is the psychological process that gives behavior purposes and directions. The conditions are the employee must have the ability to do the work and the work environment must be satisfactory.

7. Define morale and discuss the relationship to employee performance and motivation. Morale is the state of mind of an individual or group in regard to confidence, cheerfulness, and discipline. It is believed that high productivity results from high morale and motivation.

8. Distinguish between morale and job satisfaction. What are some of the methods used to increase employee job satisfaction in the workplace? Job satisfaction refers to the state of mind an individual has about his or her work environment but morale is in regards to the confidence and discipline.

9. Motivation theories tend to be classified as either content theories, process theories, or reinforcement theories. Distinguish between the three classifications. Content theories are motivational theories that focus on the needs within individuals that cause them to act in a certain way. Process theories are motivational theories that concentrate on rewards that individuals will possibly receive if they behave or perform in a certain way and reinforcement theories are those that base motivation on consequences of past actions to influence future actions.

10. Define leadership.
Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.

11. Distinguish between leaders and managers. Leaders are a part of management. They have followers whereas managers are effective leaders because they get things done through others.

12. Describe the following leadership styles: (a) autocratic; (b) democratic; (c) Laissez-Faire. An autocratic leader makes all the decisions for the group. A democratic leader encourages and allows the group members to participate in the decision-making process. A laissez-Faire leader allows followers in the group to make the decisions themselves.

13. What is the importance of communication to the management function of planning? To organizing? To implementing? To controlling? All managers plan for the purpose of attaining the objectives in the proper time period...
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