Job Characteristic Model

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THE APPLICATION OF HACKMAN AND OLDHAM’S JOB
CHARACTERISTIC MODEL TO PERCEPTIONS COMMUNITY MUSIC
SCHOOL FACULTY HAVE TOWARDS THEIR JOB
Robert M. Lawrence, B.A., M.M.E.

Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPOHY

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS
August 2001

APPROVED:
Dr. Hildegard Froehlich, Major
Professor and Program Coordinator
for Music Education
Dr. Kris Chesky, Minor Professor
Dr. Warren Henry, Committee Member and
Chair of the Department of Music
Education
Dr. Darhyl Ramsey, Committee Member
Dr. Tom Clark, Dean of the College of
Music
C. Neal Tate, Dean of the Robert B.
Toulouse School of Graduate Studies

Lawrence, Robert M., The Application of Hackman and
Oldham’s Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job.

Doctor of

Philosophy (Music Education), August 2001, 167 pp., 25
tables, 25 figures, bibliography, 37 titles.
Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristic Model was
applied to study of perceptions community music school
faculty hold towards their job.

The research questions

addressed core job characteristics of skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback,
critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness,
experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results);
personal and work outcomes of satisfaction and motivation;
need for professional growth. The results were compared to
the national norms for nine different job families provided
by Oldham, Hackman, and Stepina.

Thirty-three schools, all

members of the National Guild of Community Schools of the
Arts, located in every geographical region of the United
States, yielded 437 faculty responses (64% return rate).
Of the core job characteristics, dealing with others and
autonomy received the highest ratings; feedback and task
significance received the lowest ratings.

Of the

psychological states, experienced responsibility yielded
the highest rating and experienced meaningfulness yielded
the lowest ratings.

Of the personal/work outcomes,

personal development and colleague relations received the
highest ratings; pay satisfaction and overall general
satisfaction received the lowest ratings.

A comparison to

the professional job family norms, using a one-sample ttest, found significant differences in 16 out of the 18 variables measured by the Job Characteristic Model.

Strong

positive feelings for growth combined with less than strong
feelings for the core job dimensions yielded a low
motivating potential score of 96.18.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Chapter
I.

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Rationale
Background
Purpose and Problems
Definition of Terms
Delimitations

II.

RELATED LITERATURE

..............

19

Historical Background of Job Design and Motivation
Description of Job Diagnostic Survey
Norms of the Job Diagnostic Survey
The Job Diagnostic Survey in Education
III.

METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

Instrumentation and Data Collection Procedures
Population, Sample, and Subjects
Data Analysis Techniques
IV.

RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Data Analysis
Comparison of Results to National Norms
V.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . .
Summary
Conclusions
Discussion

ii

114

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164

iii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1

The Motivating Potential Score formula
as computed by Hackman and Oldham . . . . . . . 7

Table 2

Question from Section One of the
Job Diagnostic Survey of Hackman and Oldham . . 27

Table 3

Question from Section Two of the
Job Diagnostic Survey of Hackman and Oldham . . 28

Table 4

A...
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