Job Analysis

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TOPIC 4
JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Strategic design of work
• WORK DESIGN the process of assigning and
coordinating work tasks
• DIFFERENCIATION assigning sets of similar
tasks so that they can specialize
• INTEGRAGTION coordinating the efforts of
employees.
2

How is work design strategic?
• Developing autonomy
• Developing interdependence
– Sequential processing
– Reciprocal processing

• Linking autonomy and interdependence to HR
strategy
3

Strategic framework for work design

4

The job analysis process
• Job A collection of tasks that define the work
duties of an employee.
• Job analysis The process of systematically
collecting information about the tasks that
workers perform.

5

Phases of job analysis

6

Methods of collecting job analysis
information
• Task analysis inventory
• Critical incidents technique
• Position Analysis Questionnaire

7

How is Job Description Information
Made Useful?

8

Job description










Job identification
Job summary
Relation to other jobs
Location in hierarchy
Tools used
Responsibilities
Condition of work
Location of work
hazards
9

Job specification








education
Experience
Training
Initiative
Physical effort
Physical skills
Communication skills
10

Use of job analysis
• employment

• Organization audit

• Training and
development

• Performance appraisal •
• Promotion and transfer
• Health and safety
• Induction

Preventing
dissatisfaction
Industrial relations
Career planning
Succession planning

11

Competency modelling
• Competency modeling An alternative to
traditional job analysis that focuses on a
broader set of characteristics that workers
need to effectively perform job duties.
• Competencies Characteristics and capabilities
that people need to succeed in work
assignments.
12

Competency modelling

13

How Do We Determine the Tasks
Associated with Each Job?
• Job design The process of deciding what tasks
will be grouped together to define the duties
of someone in a particular work position.
• Job redesign The process of reassessing task
groupings to create new sets of duties that
workers in particular positions are required to
do.
14

Mechanistic approach
• Scientific management A set of management
principles that focus on efficiency and
standardization of processes.

15

Motivational approach
• Job characteristics model A form of
motivational job design that focuses on
creating work that employees enjoy doing.

16

Perceptual approach
• The basic objective of the perceptual
approach is to simplify mental demands on
workers and thereby decrease errors

17

Biological approach
• Ergonomics An approach to designing work
tasks that focuses on correct posture and
movement.

18

Combining work design approaches
• A potential problem associated with work
design is the sometimes conflicting goals of
the various approaches.
• Does increased efficiency come at the expense
of worker satisfaction and creativity?

19

Designing work to improve family
life?
• Family-to-work conflict Problems that occur
when meeting family obligations negatively
influences work behavior and outcomes.
• Work-to-family conflict Problems that occur
when meeting work obligations negatively
influences behavior and outcomes at home.

20

Flexible work scheduling
• Flextime A scheduling policy that allows
employees to determine the exact hours they
will work around a specific band of time.
• Compressed workweek Working more than
eight hours in a shift so that 40 hours of work
are completed in fewer than five days.
• Telework Completion of work through voice
and data lines such as telephone and highspeed Internet connections. 21

Flexible work scheduling
• Flextime A scheduling policy that allows
employees to determine the exact hours they
will work around a specific band...
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