The Importance of Job AnalysisAngelica McElhone PSY/435Professor Del GrossoUoPO Describing Job Analysis
There are many different types of occupations; each one requiring specific tasks to perform on the job. For example to become a social worker, not only must you have specific educational requirements but to obtain a job as a social worker you must also need specific knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics to perform the tasks at hand. In order for an organization to hire an employee with the best qualification necessary to perform the task needed for job, the organization uses the help of Industrial and Organization psychology. To identify these characteristics I/O psychologists have developed the concept of a job analysis and other assessments such as performance appraisals, for organizations to choose the best employees that are most beneficial to the organization.
A job analysis is explained as methods used to describe specific jobs and the characteristics of a person necessary to perform the tasks on the job (Spector, 2012). There is no one way to create a job analysis as long as it includes three elements: the job analysis must be systematic, the job must be broken down in smaller units and the analysis must be written out electronically or on paper (Spector, 2012). Either way each job analysis has two approaches; to gather information that is job-oriented or to gather information that is person oriented. At times the job analysis is used to gather information about one or the other approach but it can also be used for both. The job-oriented approach provides information about the specific tasks that are performed on the job (Spector,2012). Whether it be describing the task itself or describing the characteristics of the task. For example of a task for a secretary would be writing letters to the cliental and the characteristics of that task would be the use of a computer and the program Word. The person-oriented approach provides a description of the necessary characteristics or KSAO's that are needed to perform the job well (Spector, 2012). KSAO's stands for knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that are needed to perform the job successfully. Knowledge is what a person should know about the job, skill is what the person is able to do on the job, ability is how capable a person is able to perform the job and other characteristics are the other traits a person has that may be beneficial on the job (Spector, 2012).
A job analysis has many different purposes such as defining the KSAO's necessary for advancement in career development, providing descriptions of applicant characteristics that are necessary for hiring and recruiting employees, suggests areas for training and even sets criteria to evaluate employee performance for performance appraisals.
Performance appraisals are methods used by organizations to examine and evaluate an employee's work performance by comparing it with present standards. The organization then documents the results of the evaluation and uses those results to improve the employees work performance where it is needed (Zedeck, 2011). Performance appraisals are not only beneficial to the employee by creating improvement in behavior/work performance, but it is also beneficial to the organization by providing research on how to improve the work place as well.
There are many ways to evaluate an employee’s performance but the most common ways are through objective performance and subjective judgment. Objective measures are recorded counts of various behaviors such as the number of absences an employee has had within the year or how many time an employee has come in late. Subjective measures are ratings by people such as a supervisor or manager, who witness the employee's job performance (Spector, 2012). An example of a rating form used in this process is called the graphic rating form. This form focuses on gaining information about an employee 's...
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