Job analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing, and setting out information about the content of jobs and the related qualifications necessary for one to perform them. The process involves use of methods and procedures to determine the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, working relationships, and required qualifications.
Job analysis produces the following information about a job: 1
Overall purpose: Why the job exists and, in essence, what the holder is expected to contribute. 2
Content: the nature and scope of the job in terms of tasks and operations to be performed and duties to be carried out — i.e. the processes of converting inputs, such as knowledge, skills and abilities, into outputs (results). 3
Accountabilities: The outputs or results for which the job holder is accountable. 4
Performance criteria: The criteria, measures or indicators that enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the degree to which the job is bro performed satisfactorily. 5
Responsibilities: the level of responsibility the job holder has to exercise by reference to the scope and input of the job; the amount of discretion a flowed to make decisions; the difficulty, scale, variety and complexity of the problems to be solved, the quantity and value of the resources controlled; and the type and importance of interpersonal relations. 6
Organizational factors: the reporting relationships of the job holder, i.e. to whom he or she reports either directly (line managers) or functionally; the people reporting, directly or indirectly to the job holder; and the extent to which the job holder is involved in teamwork. 7
Motivating factors: the particular features of the job that are likely to motivate or demotivate the job holder if, in the latter case, nothing is done about them. 8
Development factors: promotion and career prospects and the opportunity to acquire new skills or expertise.
• Environmental factors: working conditions health and safety considerations, unsocial hours, mobility, and ergonomic factors relating to the design and use of equipment or work stations.
Basic Steps in Data Collection
The following are the basic steps required in the collection of information concerning jobs: 1
Obtain documents such as existing organization chart, and procedure or training manuals which give information about the job. 2
Ask managers for fundamentals information concerning the job, the overall purpose, the main activities carried out, the responsibilities involved and the relationships with others. 3
Ask the job holders similar questions about their jobs. It is sometimes helpful to get them to keep a diary or a detailed record of work activities over a week or two. 4
For certain jobs, especially those involving manual or office/administrative skills, observe job holders at work — even with manager or professional staff it is helpful, if time permits, to spend time with them.
The following other issues concerning job analysis need to be borne in mind:
Facts are gathered, analyzed and recorded with respect to the job as it exists. 2
Job analysis is conducted post facto, that is, after the job has been designed, suitable training has been imparted to the worker and the job is already being performed. 3
Job analysis is done at three different times — when the organization is formed or started and the job analysis is initiated; when new jobs are created; and when jobs undergo significant changes consequent upon new methods, procedures, systems or technology.
Uses and Application of Job Analysis
Data obtained through job analysis is applied in virtually every aspect of human resource management as explained below.
Designing the Human Resource Information System
Job descriptions, job specifications, and performance standards that result from job analysis are the minimum database required by the human resource department to design its human resource information system.
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