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It is likely before 2015 the government will announce an end to the free plastic carrier bag in England. But should a tax or ban be introduced on carrier bags? Governments and local authorities around the world have already banned or taxed free issue carrier bags, and there is pressure for legislation in England. They argue that cities must spend vast sums to clean up the bags and the damage caused by them, money that's better spent elsewhere. Not to mention that plastic bags are a nuisance on the environment, polluting waterways and other natural areas and killing off animals. Banning plastic bags, the activists say, will redirect funds to infrastructure and spur entrepreneurial efforts to come up with alternatives to plastic. Is this the answer? Plastic carrier bags make up less than 1% of litter on our streets. Most litter is from snack food packaging, bottles and cans, banning or taxing plastic bags will make little or no difference to the volume of litter on our streets. However, litter is a problem of social behavior, and is not specific to any one material or product. In 2011, 8bn plastic bags were issued in the UK and that was a 5.6% increase on 2010. The recession may have been a contributory factory with families changing their shopping behavior with smaller, more frequent shops each week. Just over a year ago a 5p charge was introduced in Wales and the amount of single-use bags has fallen significantly. Latest figures show a 70-96% reduction in the use of single-use plastic bags. Northern Ireland is set to bring in a 5p charge in 2013; Scotland had completed a consultation on a proposed charge of 5p that, if adopted, would leave England the only country without one. 1. Briefly describe the topic of the article. How/why does it fit the assignment? The topic of the article is about how the government will try to reduce plastic bags due to the waste of them. It’s talking about how the environment is being over-crowded by plastic waste. 2. Who is the author or speaker?

You indicate that the author is someone who cares about the earth, who might say he/she is in the “GoGreen” group. She knows a lot of information about what she is talking about. Has enough pathos information to try to get audience to do something about it. Or she can be a person that works for the government just warning the people what’s to come in the future. 3. Who is the intended audience?

The intended audience is all people in American who go to retail stores. Just an inform article.

4. What is the context, or exigence?
The author gives an scientific way to show how plastic bags effects the earth in an negative impact. The author starts off with an eye-catching sentence.

5. What is the author or speaker’s purpose? How are rhetorical appeals used to achieve this purpose? The author purpose of this article is to inform that the government will be taxing or even taking away all plastic retail bags. But in the meantime it tries to persuade the people to recycle plastic bags instead of littering.

The United States, perhaps rather unfairly, has the reputation as being the world's biggest throwaway society, yet it is one of the few countries of the world that has a particular day set aside each year as a National Recycling Day. It was 15 years ago, in 1997 that 15th November was first set aside as America Recycles Day, with the aim of helping Americans to become better informed about the importance of recycling and buying products made from recycled materials. This message certainly seems to be getting home to people. Back in 1960 only around 7% of municipal solid waste was recycled in the US, whereas today more than a third is either recycled or composted. This is a five-fold increase. Municipal solid waste, rubbish, trash or garbage, call it what you will, includes all the everyday items that we use and then throw away; in fact anything that people no longer want. The range is vast and among the list will be:  packaging...
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