Culture Vocab Chart
| Set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication.
| Form of communication used amongst people.
| Standard Language
| Variant of language that a country’s people seek to use in schools, media, government, etc.
| Used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
| English in AmericaFrench in FranceEnglish in Canada
| Local or regional characteristics of language
| Has different pronunciation and distinctive grammar ad vocab
| South: "Y'all" North: "You guys" South: "Fixin' to" North: "About to"
| Geographic boundary within which linguistic feature occurs
| separates regions in which different languages exist
| Ossetia -European
| Mutual Intelligibility
| Ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
| Understanding what someone else speaks
| Bob understand what Billy says.
| Language families
| Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
| Languages that came from same root language
| Indo European
| Sound Shift
| Slight change in word across languages within subfamily or thorough language family
| Change of language that affect pronunciation
| Linguistic hypothesis proposing existence of an ancestral Indo European language
| Hearth of ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which link modern languages.
| Scandinavia to North Africa and North America through parts of Asia to Australia
| Backward Reconstruction
| Tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants “backward” toward original language
| Going backward to original language
| “milk" in English, "melk" in Dutch, "milche" in German.
| Extinct Language
| Language without any native speakers
| Language not spoken anymore
| Latin, Gothic, Hebrew
| Deep Reconstruction
| Technique using vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create language that preceded it.
| Going back to a language’s preceded language
| “milk" in English, "melk" in Dutch, "milche" in German
| Language believed to be the ancestral language of Proto Indo Europeans
| Also for the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus regions
| Hungarian, Finnish
| Language Divergence
| Opposite of language convergence; Process that German linguist August Schleicher suggested
| languages are formed when language breaks into dialects due to lack of spatial interaction
| French spoken in France is now different from the French spoken in Quebec.
| Language Convergence
| Opposite of language divergence; collapsing of two languages into one
| Results from consistent spatial interaction of people with different languages
| Balkans where different languages (such as Greek, Albanian, Romania, Bulgarian) all share certain features of grammar
| Renfrew Hypothesis
| Developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew. Said that 3 areas in and near first agricultural hearth, Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families.
| Europe’s Indo European languages, North African and Arabian languages, and languages in present day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.
| Anatolia (Turkey), Western arc of Fertile Crescent, Eastern arc of Fertile Crescent.
| Conquest theory
| Major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused to Europe
| Early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, and started diffusions of European tongues.
| Modern day Ukraine.
| Process in which something is given monetary value
| Good or idea is turned into something that has particular value and can be traded in market economy.
| Chicken used to be expensive, and only for special occasions. With battery farming, chicken meat has become a commodity.
| Monolingual States
| Countries in which one language is spoken
| These are countries with only one official language
| Japan (Japanese)
| Official Language
| Language selected often by educated and...
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