Topics: Indo-European languages, Language family, Historical linguistics Pages: 6 (1817 words) Published: March 21, 2013
Culture Vocab Chart
Word| Definition| Explain| Example|
Language| Set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication.| Form of communication used amongst people.| EnglishFrenchBengali| Standard Language| Variant of language that a country’s people seek to use in schools, media, government, etc. | Used for official government business, education, and mass communications.| English in AmericaFrench in FranceEnglish in Canada| Dialects| Local or regional characteristics of language| Has different pronunciation and distinctive grammar ad vocab| South: "Y'all" North: "You guys" South: "Fixin' to" North: "About to"| Isogloss| Geographic boundary within which linguistic feature occurs| separates regions in which different languages exist| Ossetia -European| Mutual Intelligibility| Ability of two people to understand each other when speaking | Understanding what someone else speaks| Bob understand what Billy says. | Language families| Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin| Languages that came from same root language| Indo European| Sound Shift| Slight change in word across languages within subfamily or thorough language family | Change of language that affect pronunciation| | Proto-Indo-European| Linguistic hypothesis proposing existence of an ancestral Indo European language| Hearth of ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which link modern languages. | Scandinavia to North Africa and North America through parts of Asia to Australia| Backward Reconstruction| Tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants “backward” toward original language | Going backward to original language | “milk" in English, "melk" in Dutch, "milche" in German.| Extinct Language| Language without any native speakers| Language not spoken anymore| Latin, Gothic, Hebrew| Deep Reconstruction| Technique using vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create language that preceded it. | Going back to a language’s preceded language| “milk" in English, "melk" in Dutch, "milche" in German| Nostratic| Language believed to be the ancestral language of Proto Indo Europeans| Also for the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus regions| Hungarian, Finnish | Language Divergence| Opposite of language convergence; Process that German linguist August Schleicher suggested| languages are formed when language breaks into dialects due to lack of spatial interaction | French spoken in France is now different from the French spoken in Quebec.| Language Convergence| Opposite of language divergence; collapsing of two languages into one| Results from consistent spatial interaction of people with different languages| Balkans where different languages (such as Greek, Albanian, Romania, Bulgarian) all share certain features of grammar| Renfrew Hypothesis| Developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew. Said that 3 areas in and near first agricultural hearth, Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families. | Europe’s Indo European languages, North African and Arabian languages, and languages in present day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. | Anatolia (Turkey), Western arc of Fertile Crescent, Eastern arc of Fertile Crescent. | Conquest theory| Major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused to Europe | Early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, and started diffusions of European tongues. | Modern day Ukraine. | Commodification | Process in which something is given monetary value| Good or idea is turned into something that has particular value and can be traded in market economy. | Chicken used to be expensive, and only for special occasions. With battery farming, chicken meat has become a commodity.| Monolingual States| Countries in which one language is spoken| These are countries with only one official language| Japan (Japanese)| Official Language| Language selected often by educated and...
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