1. The Zhou line of kings was the longest lasting and most revered of all dynasties in Chinese history. The positive image of Zhou rule was skillfully constructed by propagandists for the new regime. The early Zhou monarchs had to justify their seizure of power to the restive remnants of the Shang clans. The Zhou kings continued some of Shang rituals, but there was a mark decline in the practice of divination and in extravagant and bloody sacrifices and burials. 2. Women in ancient Chinese society: Their role and status wasn’t the big at all. They didn’t really have any control over anything. They could only help maintain the household’s ancestral shrines, while the men had other rights. Women in ancient Celtic society:
3. Egyptian craftsmen of the period were working in ivory and in ebony wood- products of tropical Africa that had to have come through Nubia. Egyptian rulers sought to control the gold mines in the desert east of the Nile and to cute out the Nubian middle-men who drove up the cost of luxury goods from the tropics. The Egyptians erected a string of mud-bricks forts on islands and riverbank south of the Second Cataract. 4. By the fourth century B.C.E. the center of gravity had shifted south the Meroe, perhaps because Meroe was better situated for agriculture and trade, the economic mainstays of the Nubian kingdom. As a result, sub-Suharan cultural patterns gradually replaced Egyptian ones. Egyptian hieroglyphs gave way to a set of symbols still essentially undeciphered, for writing the Meroitic language. 5. Chavin was one of the most impressive of South America’s early urban civilizations, inherited many of the cultural and economic characteristics of Caral. Between 900 and 250 B.C.E., and period roughly coinciding with Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica, Chavin dominated a densely populated region that included large areas of the Peruvian Coastal Plain and Andean foothills.
1. Egyptian Middle Kingdom declined in the seventeenth century B.C.E. As high-level officials in the countryside became increasingly independent and new groups migrated into the Nile Delta, central authority broke down, and Egypt centered a period of political fragmentation and economic decline. 2. He was changing and trying to change a lot of things, like attempting to reassert the superiority of the king over the priest and to renew belief in the king’s divinity. 3. The king was literally and symbolically the center of the Assyrian universe. All the land belonged to him and all of the people, even the highest ranking officials, were his servants. Normally the king chose one of his sons to be his successor, and his choice was confirmed by divine oracles and the Assyrian elite. He was the military leader, responsible for planning campains, and he often was away from the capital commanding operations in the field. He devoted much of his time to elaborate public and private rituals and to overseeing the upkeep of the temples. 4. Relentless government propaganda secured popular support for military campaigns that mostly benefited the king and the nobility. 5. To maintain their religion and culture outside the homeland, the Diaspora communities developed institutions like the synagogue, a communal meeting place that served religious, educational, and social functions. 6. Jews lived by a rigid set f rules. Dietary restrictions forbade the eating of pork and shellfish and mandated that meat and dairy products not be consumed together. Ritual baths were used to achieve spiritual purity, and women were required to take ritual baths after menstruation. They venerated the Sabbath by refraining from work and from fighting, following the example of Yahweh, rested on the seventh day. These strictures tended to isolate the Jews from other peoples, but they also fostered a powerful sense of the community and the belief that they were protected by a watchful and beneficent deity. 7. King Hiram,...