Upstream CAE-Compa-Unit 01
Upstream Advanced - Unit 1
Something to Shout About
Lead-in (p. 7)
block out a thought (exp) = try not to think about
sth / ‰ÈÒ¯Óˆ ÌÈ· ÛÎ¤„Ë ·ﬁ ÙÔ Ì˘·Ïﬁ ÌÔ˘ e.g. He blocked out all thoughts that he might fail; he
desperately needed to win this race.
channel one’s efforts (exp) = concentrate on,
attempt to do one thing rather than a wider
range of things / ‰ÈÔ¯ÂÙÂ‡ˆ, Î·ÙÂ˘ı‡Óˆ
e.g. She decided to channel all her efforts into
meeting the deadline she had set herself.
become second nature (exp) = do sth almost
without thinking because one has become used
to it / Á›ÓÂÙ·È ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Ê‡ÛË ÌÔ˘, ÙÔ Û˘ÓËı›˙ˆ e.g. The golf professional demonstrated the stroke and
told him to keep practising until it became second
quick thinking /kwæk ıæ…kæ…/ (phr) = the ability to
use one’s brain and create an idea quickly /
e.g. In emergency situations, quick thinking is of vital
foresight /f¥rsaæt/ (n) = the ability to see what is
likely to happen in the future and take
appropriate action / ÚÔÓÔËÙÈÎﬁÙËÙ·,
e.g. Blessed with an uncanny foresight, he made a
fortune trading at the stock.
diplomacy /dæploμmºsi/ (n) = the skill of being
careful to say or do things which will not offend
people / ‰ÈÏˆÌ·Ù›·
e.g. With great diplomacy and soothing words, he
persuaded the delegate to resume his place at the
Der.: diplomatic (adj)
discipline /dæsæplæn/ (n) = the quality of being able to
behave and work in a controlled way which
involves obeying rules / ÂÈı·Ú¯›·
e.g. The armed forces rely on discipline to maintain
order in the ranks as well as obey orders when in
Der.: disciplinary (adj), disciplinarian (n)
intellect /æntælekt/ (n) = the ability to understand or
deal with ideas and information / ÓÔËÌÔÛ‡ÓË
e.g. Mozart’s great intellect became apparent when
he began composing music at the age of six.
Der.: intellectual (adj)
persuasion /pºrswΩ»ºn/ (n) =the ability to make
someone believe that sth is true / ÂÈıÒ
e.g. The villagers needed much persuasion that is was
safe before they returned to their homes.
Der.: persuasive (adj)
team spirit /t∞m spæræt/ (n) = the feeling of pride and
loyalty that exists among the members of a
team and makes them want their team to do
well or be the best / ÔÌ·‰ÈÎﬁ ÓÂ‡Ì·
e.g. The management encouraged the employees to
play sports in the belief that it would improve team
spirit in the office.
Reading (pp. 8-9)
set a goal (phr) = decide on what one hopes to
achieve / ‚¿˙ˆ ÛÙﬁ¯Ô
e.g. The counsellor advised the young woman to set a
goal that was achievable before moving on to the
pursue a goal (phr) = make efforts to achieve sth
often over a long period of time / ÂÈ‰ÈÒÎˆ ÙÔ
e.g. John pursued a goal to become a writer for years
until he finally succeeded in getting his work published.
gut instinct /g∑t ænstæ…kt/ (n) = a feeling based on
emotion rather than reason / ¤ÓÛÙÈÎÙÔ
e.g. The frightened woman increased her pace; she
had a gut instinct that she was about to be robbed.
interpret /æntªrpræt/ (v) = decide on what the
meaning or significance of sth is / ÂÚÌËÓÂ‡ˆ
e.g. The man’s body language and evasiveness were
interpreted by the police as signs of guilt.
Der.: interpreter (n), interpretation (n)
javelin /π±vlæn/ (n) = a long spear used in sports
competitions / ·ÎﬁÓÙÈÔ
e.g. When Odysseus threw the javelin, it landed far
beyond the furthest throw of the other men.
claw one’s way (exp) = move somewhere with
great difficulty, trying desperately to find things
to hold on to / ÁÚ·ÒÓÔÌ·È ·ﬁ Î¿ÙÈ Î·È ÚÔ¯ˆÚÒ
e.g. Despite his lack of formal education, he still
managed to claw his way to the top.
be in contention (exp) = have a chance of winning sth /
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