Bill Bailey, Chairman of the Board of the Utah Opera Organization is leaning toward positively supporting the merger of the Opera and the Symphony Orchestra. Bailey favors the proposed merger for the following reasons, due to the economic climate the operas financial stability, although stable at present, could be at risk for decline in the years to come due to the declining public and private support. Also, he and the Opera trustees would like to see the opera become a top-tier organization, and with the merger that would be possible. To reach the goals of financial stability and top tier status, and expanding the opera’s potential, Bailey would need to utilize V. H. Vroom’s theory of motivation to gain the support of the opera’s executive committee and the Orchestra members. Expectancy theory can be used whenever there are a number of choices to be made. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a process theory identifying internal factors that influence motivation. Based on the principle that motivation is a function of a person’s perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs, process theories of motivation are cognitive in nature (Kreitner, & Kinicki, 2010). Expectancy theory relies on extrinsic motivators to explain causes for behaviors. Therefore, if Bailey and the Orchestra executive committee are motivated, to gain top-tier status, expanding their artistic potential, then they can achieve that status, (a valued outcome) with actions (behavior) that supports the merger. Gaining top-tier status would be an example of an extrinsic motivator which expectancy theory relies on to explain behavior (Leadership and Motivation 2011). Expectancy theory has three important components: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance. Expectancy – the expenditure of effort results in acceptable levels of performance. This perception will be based on the Bailey’s past experience, his self confidence (referred to as self efficacy), and his perception of the difficulty of the performance standard or goal which in this case is the merger of the top two Arts programs in Utah. Instrumentality - performance level achieved will result in a specific outcome for the person(s). When individuals, such as the Opera executive committee and the Opera members, trust their leader (Bailey), believe they have some kind of control, and have policies linking rewards to performance (Top-tier status), instrumentality tends to increase. Valance - outcome attained is personally valued. This is a function of Bailey’s and the Orchestra’s needs goals, values, and sources of motivation. In this case top-tier status, financial security and retention of identity after the merger. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory offers a means for Bailey to realize his leadership goals in that it provides him with an influence strategy to sway the course of action, based upon perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs of the Orchestra executive committee and the Orchestra members wishing to maximize their self-interests.
Scott Parker, Chairman of the Board of the Utah Symphony is in support of the merger of the Orchestra and the Utah Symphony Orchestra. Parker favors the merger because approximately one year after he accepted the chairmanship of the symphony’s board he was faced with the Orchestra nearing a deficit with no financial relief in sight. There were also contractual obligations to pay the salaries of the Orchestra’s members. Not only did the Orchestra’s capital fund raising not produce the capital targeted there was speculation that the annual Zoo, Arts, and Parks contribution would not be there this year. In essence private and public monies were becoming coming harder to secure because there was less dollars to be had and more organizations asking for them (contributions). In addition to the financial situation, the CEO of the Orchestra tendered his resignation effective at the end of February. Parker knew that it would not be easy to find the right person to be...
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