Jean Watsons Caring Theory

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The theory of human caring started in 1975 and continues to evolve. Jean Watson is a widely published author and recipient of several awards and honors. She “holds the only endowed chair in caring science in the United States. For this reason, Watson explains, she felt obligated to explore the development of nursing as a caring science” (Davidhizar, 2005, p. 314). Her research is in the area of human caring and loss. She published her theory in 1988. She believed a liberal arts background was imperative to developing humanistic philosophies. Watson believes nursing is an art and a science. Watson believed human caring and nursing is more than a routine job. Nursing is a profession involving caring, compassion, spirituality, growth knowledge, and learning. Nursing is a profession with huge responsibilities. Human caring is not a product that can be bought or sold. Given the health crises today, it is essential to reverse the non-caring trend within the health system, (Watson, 2009). An approach other than focusing on external issues are needed. A value-based approach is necessary to maintain the dignity and respect of the nursing profession (Watson, 2009). Watson’s caring theory addresses the relationship of the human spirit and values. Her theory considers both the individual and the caregiver. Watson’s theory discusses the relationship of self and professional expectations in the field of nursing. Nursing embraces the service of caring and healing as well as defining ones values and knowledge. Nurses are held to ethical standards and responsibilities (“Nursing Theories, 2010). Jean Watson was unique in the way she expressed human caring. Her theory is founded on a humanistic approach to caring programs and experiences. Her concept shows a relationship or connection between the patient and nurse. Watson encourages nurses to remain caring regardless of the high demands on nurses. Nurses are caring for more complex patients, and they are experiencing greater workloads. She also believes that individuals and their community are interconnected. Jean Watson uses literature-based and spiritual-based investigations in her research. Her caring theory use the metaphysical, philosophical, ethical, and historical research to accurately and effectively investigate cases (Watson Caring Institiue, 2009). These values of caring provide gratification to the professional nurse. Watson believes that providing caring values is essential to the health of the nurse as a person as well as providing meaning to the nursing profession. The major elements of Watson’s human caring theory are the carative factors, the transpersonal caring moment, and the caring moment or caring occasion. The carative factors developed in 1979 was a guide used in the framework of nursing (“Nursing Theory, 2010). Jean Watson’s carative factors comprise 10 elements. These elements involve the humanistic-altruistic system of value, faith-hope, sensitivity to self and others, helping and trusting, the human care relationship, expression of positive and negative feelings, creative problem-solving and caring process, transpersonal teaching and learning, the supportive, protective, and or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment, human needs assistance, and the existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces (“Nursing Theories,” 2010). With the evolution of Watson’s theory and carative factors, the concept of clinical caritas were developed. The caritas brought a higher dimension to her caring process. The caritas involve the concept of spiritual caring. The clinical caritas are the practice of loving kindness, being genuinely present and enabling the beliefs of the individual and the caregiver, the cultivation of one’s own spiritual practices showing sensitivity and compassion, developing and sustaining a helping, trusting, and caring relationship, being present to and supportive of the...
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