Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
Olivet Nazarene University
Theoretical and Professional Foundations of Nursing
MSN SP2013 NRSG-653-54
March 19, 2013
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Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring focuses on holistic care of the patient and understanding the power of a meaningful therapeutic relationship. The theory is a middle-range theory and is based on the role of care and the influence of caring on healing. Caring is a moral ideal of nursing that involves mind, body, and soul engagement with another, which can be expressed through nursing interventions (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Many nurses have adopted Jean Watson’s Caring Theory in their own practice. Nursing has a commitment to protect, enhance, and preserve their client’s humanity by helping them restore harmony. Caring moments should transform both the patient and nurse, as they are linked together. Educational History
Jean Watson earned her BSN, MS, and PhD degrees all at University of Colorado. She was also the former dean in the College of Nursing and founded the Center for Human Caring (Parker & Smith, 2010). Watson’s undergraduate and graduate degrees are in nursing and mental health nursing. Her PhD is in educational psychology and counseling. Jean Watson also serves as director of the Watson Caring Science Institute, which is a nonprofit company she founded and is dedicated to promoting the work of caring, science, and heart-centered nursing (Parker & Smith, 2010). Overview of Theory of Human Caring
There are four major elements in Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. The four elements are the ten carative factors/clinical caritas processes, transpersonal caring relationships, caring moment/occasion, and caring-healing modalities. Carative factors are a guide and process in which a person cares for another and does all they can to protect, support, enhance, and maintain his or her quality of life. Transpersonal caring is a time when the nurse and patient come together and has an influence on each other. Caring should not be done as a chore as an assignment as it is an ethical deliberate action. Caring moments occur when two people come together with one person being the care recipient. Watson also developed the concept of clinical caritas that evolved from carative factors. Caritas means to cherish and expands on the relationship between caring and healing for self and others (Parker & Smith, 2010). Original Carative Factors
Dr. Watson started her theory with ten carative factors, which she later evolved into
clinical caritas processes. The ten factors are:
1. Formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values.
2. Instillation of faith-hope.
3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others.
4. Establishing a helping-trusting relationship, human caring relationship.
5. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of feelings, both positive and negative
6. The systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process.
7. Promotion of system and subjective life world of self and one being cared for.
6. Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process becomes transpersonal
8. Provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, societal, and
9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs.
10. Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces. (Parker &...
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