• -main focus in nursing is on carative factors.
• -for nurses to develop humanistic philosophies and value system, a strong liberal arts background is necessary. • the caring stance that nursing has always held is being threatened by the tasks and technology demands of the curative factors
The seven assumptions
• Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally. • Caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs. • Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth. • Caring responses accept person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become. • A caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time. • Caring is more “ healthogenic” than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing. • The practice of caring is central to nursing.
The ten primary carative factors
1. The formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values. 2. The installation of faith-hope.
3. The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others. 4. The development of a helping-trust relationship
5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings. 6. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making 7. The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning.
8. The provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs.
10. The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces.
The first three carative factors form the “philosophical foundation” for the science of caring. The remaining seven carative factors spring from the foundation laid by these first three.
1. The formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values
• Begins developmentally at an early age with values shared with the parents. • Mediated through ones own life experiences, the learning one gains and exposure to the humanities. • Is perceived as necessary to the nurse’s own maturation which then promotes altruistic behavior towards others.
• Is essential to both the carative and the curative processes. • When modern science has nothing further to offer the person, the nurse can continue to use faith-hope to provide a sense of well-being through beliefs which are meaningful to the individual.
3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others
• Explores the need of the nurse to begin to feel an emotion as it presents itself. • Development of one’s own feeling is needed to interact genuinely and sensitively with others. • Striving to become sensitive, makes the nurse more authentic, which encourages self-growth and self-actualization, in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts. • The nurses promote health and higher level functioning only when they form person to person relationship.
4. Establishing a helping-trust relationship
• Strongest tool is the mode of communication, which establishes rapport and caring. • She has defined the characteristics needed to in the helping-trust relationship. These are: o Congruence
• Communication includes verbal, nonverbal and listening in a manner which connotes empathetic understanding.
5. The expression of feelings, both positive and negative
• “feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed for in a caring relationship”. • Awareness of the feelings helps to understand the behavior it engenders.
6. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making
• According to Watson, the scientific problem-...