Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from anagrarian society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energy andmetallurgy production. It is the extensive organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. Industrialisation also introduces a form of philosophical change where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception ofnature, and a sociological process of ubiquitous rationalisation. There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development. Key positive factors identified by researchers have ranged from favourable political-legal environments for industry and commerce, through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labour. As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth. The first country to industrialise was the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution, commencing in the 18th century. By the end of the 20th century, East Asia had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world. Contents [hide] * 1 Description * 2 History of industrialisation * 2.1 Industrial revolution in Europe * 2.2 Early industrialisation in other countries * 2.3 The Third World * 2.4 Petrol-producing countries * 2.5 Industrialisation in Asia * 2.6 Newly industrialised countries * 3 Social and environmental consequences * 3.1 Urbanisation * 3.2 Exploitation * 3.3 Change to family structure * 4 Current situation * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading
According to the original sector-classification developed by Jean Fourastié (1907-1990), an economy consists of: * a "primary sector" of commodity production (farming, livestock breeding, exploitation of mineral resources) * a "secondary sector" of manufacturing and processing (as paid work) * a "tertiary sector" of service industries
Historically, the industrialisation process involves the expansion of the secondary sector in an economy originally dominated by primary-sector activities. The first transformation to an industrial economy from an agricultural one, known as the Industrial Revolution, took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in Europe and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Germany, and France. Later commentators have called this the first industrial revolution. The "Second Industrial Revolution" labels the later changes that came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the steam engine, the invention of the internal combustion engine, the harnessing of electricity and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines. The invention of the assembly line gave this phase a boost. The lack of an industrial sector in a country can slow growth in the country's economy and power, so governments often encourage or enforce industrialisation. On the other hand, the presence of industry in a country does not mean in general that it will bring wealth and prosperity to the people of that country. And third, the presence of an industry in one country can make it more difficult for other countries to develop the same type of industry. This can be seen in the computer software and internet industries. Started from the US around the 1990s these industries seemed to spread over the world. But after a period of monopolisation less than a decade long, the globally-leading companies remain...
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