Japanese Project Management

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 57 (2012) 193 – 200

The 8th International Conference on Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management

A Comparative Approach of Japanese Project
Management in Construction, Manufacturing and IT
Industries
Low Foon Siang a*, Chong Heap Yiha
a

Faculty of Engineering & Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract
An effective project management approach is key to obtaining successful projects. In this study, a review of the three main industries that practise project management is conducted. This paper focusses on the application of Japanese project management (JPM) methods, namely Project and Program Management (P2M)/Kaikaku Project Management (KPM) in construction, manufacturing and information technology (IT) industries. KPM evolves from P2M, and KPM’s 3K- kakusin (innovation), kaihatsu (development) and kaizen (improvement) are the essences applied when practicing JPM style. In conclusion, the nature of practice in these three industries is different, but the management methods and approaches are almost the same.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Asia Pacific © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the the Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management Society (APBITM). Business Innovation and Technology Management Society (APBITM) Keywords: P2M/KPM; kakusin; kaihatsu; kaizen

1. Introduction
Project and Program Management (P2M) is the first Japanese project and program management for enterprise innovation developed by Professor Shigenobu Ohara of the Nippon Institute of Technology in 2001, with the support of Ministry of Economy and Industry in Japan, and its standard is managed by Project Management Certification Center [1].

The P2M model aims to create a strategic framework of innovation in order to improve corporate values in project management methodologies [2] and to create a way for Japanese enterprises to develop more innovative approaches to ensure that their businesses can compete in the global business environment [3]. Innovations here include decisions to downsize or withdraw from unprofitable projects or further invest in potential ones, the restructuring of team members or projects, and an evaluation of employee performances. These enhancements and innovations will help ensure the success of certain projects or programs.

Project management has been applied in various kinds of industries such as construction, manufacturing, information technology (IT), engineering and defense industries. Construction industry * Corresponding author Tel.: +603-4107-9802; fax: +603-4107-9803. E-mail address: lowfs@utar.edu.my

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management Society (APBITM)
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.1174

194

Low Foon Siang, Chong Heap Yih / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 57 (2012) 193 – 200

is one of the pioneer fields that applied project management [4], and it was true in Japan as well [5]. IT industry was rapidly growing in the 1970s, and in the late 1980s, IT industry, too, started to adopt the practice of project management in its projects [6,7]. Projects are basically classified into four different general types, and the first three types are construction, manufacturing and IT [6]. Therefore, we have chosen the three main industries to study their project management methods in terms of Japanese styles. The objective is to identify the application of Japanese project management in construction, manufacturing and IT industries.

2. Japanese Project Management
Japanese has its own style of management since many years ago. P2M is the first published philosophy of Japanese project management in year...
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