Japan American Case International Business Negotiations Joint Venture

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.Introduction.2
2.Negotiations with Japanese and Americans.2
2.1 The impact of culture on negotiations2
2.1.1 The Japanese Culture………………………………………….....………………..2 2.1.2 The American Culture………………………………………………………………3 2.2 Differences in negotiation styles between Japan and the US…………………………5 2.3 The profile of a Japanese and an American negotiatior6 3.The case of Motorola and Toshiba9

3.1Introduction to Joint Ventures9
3.2General facts about Toshiba, Motorola and TSC10
3.3Objectives and agreements10
3.4Factors of success11
3.5Lessons drawn from the case12
4.Our intercultural team work13
4.1Our team work process15
4.2 Presentation Performance……………………………………………………………….15 4.3 Individual Assessments .…………………………………………………………..…….16 5.Bibliography18
6.Appendix: Additional information on the Motorola-Toshiba Joint Venture 198719 7.Powerpoint Slides21

Introduction

„The idea of a corporate global village where a common culture of management unifies the practice of business around the world is more dream than reality“ (Kanter 1991: 152).

This quotation points out the importance of knowing other cultures before doing business worldwide. For mergers and acquisitions as well as for any kind of negotiation it is imperative to know the other party, especially if the environment is a different one and cultural roots differ from those at home. If two cultures, as different as the Japanese and the American cultures start doing business together, it is important to be aware of difficulties that may arise which is why the intention of this part of the paper is firstly to illustrate the differences between those two countries and secondly to highlight the example of the Toshiba-Motorola joint venture one way to a successful cross-cultural partnership.

Negotiations with Japanese and Americans.

3 2.1 The impact of culture on negotiations

2.1.1 The Japanese Culture

„Japan has been regarded by the outside world as a black box, difficult to understand and impossible to penetrate“ (Gercik 1992: 168).

In order to understand the Japanese behavior when it comes to negotiations as well as to be prepared when dealing with Japanese negotiators, it is necessary to be familiar with the roots. Traditions as well as the culture are essential to comprehend today’s Japanese society and its managers.

One of the main characteristics nowadays is the vertical society, the Tateshakai 縦社会. The hierarchy is extremely important and depends on four elements, the age, educational level, origin and sex. What should be stressed is the relevance of seniority, the older someone is, the more experience he has. Therefore older people deserve respect. This principle can also be seen in companies where the top positions such as CEO or manager are filled by older people, also usually men.

Furthermore the pursuit of harmony is another major element that defines the Japanese culture. The two concepts Honne 本音 and Tatemae 建前 illustrate that very well: while Honne is what someone truly feels and thinks, Tatemae is what is actually said in public that does not offend anyone. Also a direct 'no' could offend others, so Japanese tend to rather say 'yes, but...' or 'it's difficult' or they say 'yes' to say they understood the question – not meaning they agree on it. The concept of face is really important to the Japanese which is also expressed by the following proverb: Ikihaji kaku yori, shinu ga mashi.

(It's better to die than to live in shame.)

2.1.2 The American culture

Stahl, Langeloh and Kühlmann (1999: 27-211), three German authors, defined seven characteristics to describe the American culture. First of all, individualism plays an important role, which is why the need for personal responsibility, independence and self-fulfillment are essential as well as the pursuit of free and autonomous action...
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