Joyce was born into a middle-class, Catholic family in Dublin, Ireland on February 2, 1882 and wrote all his works about that city, even though he lived outside Ireland from 1904 on. The family's lack of financial prosperity forced them to move to an impoverished area in North Dublin. Joyce's parents still managed to send him to Clongowes Wood College, Belvedere College and later to the University College in Dublin, where Joyce became increasingly committed to language and literature as a champion of Modernism. He lived in poverty and obscurity until 1922. Joyce's concern with life among the Irish lower middle class is reflected in his works, such as Dubliners (Gifford 150). One writer said that Joyce revolutionized the treatment of plot and characterization in fiction (Gifford 20). Many critics consider William Shakespeare his only rival as a master of the English Language (Gifford 21). He died on January 13, 1941 in Zurich.
Joyce wrote a short-story collection, Dubliners, which was published in 1914. Many incidents and characters in Dubliners can be shown to have origin in real personalities whom Joyce would have known and to be based on experiences he and others had undergone (www.jamesjoyce.ie). This shows the novel's relation to Joyce's life. Joyce conveyed his view of everyday life in Dublin through this book. Joyce saw himself giving people "some kind of intellectual... [continues]
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