The Archipelago’s Name
Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago1, with all the islands and water embraces therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting islands of the archipelago regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. 1987 Phil Constitution
Derived from the Greek word pelagos which means sea. It has been defined as a sea or part of a sea studded with islands, often synonymous with island groups or as a large group of islands in an extensive body of water, such as sea.
1. Ma-yi (Ma-i) – appears in Sung Dynasty sources in 982 A.D, refer to the island of Mindoro 2. Filipinas – given to the archipelago in 1543 by the ill-starred (Philip) of Austrias, who later became Philip II, the greatest king of Spain. The name for the archipelago first appeared in a rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, an Italian geographer. 3. Philippine Islands (P.I) – during the American era.
4. Republic of the Philippines (R.P) – after the recognition of its independence in 1946. Filipinos proposed new names:
5. Rizaline Republic – proposed by Aretemio Ricarte, a Katipunan general 6. Maharlika – proposed by president Ferdinand Marcos
7. Gems of the East
8. Emerald islands
9. Treasure Islands of the Pacific
10. Isles of Fear
11. Isles of Hope
12. Orphans of the Pacific
13. Pearl of the Orient Seas – the most romantic name of Philippines
Because of its strategic location, the Philippines is destined to play a great role in the world (Zaide, 6:1999) 1. The Philippines serves as a bridge between the cultures of the East and West. 2. It lies at the crossroads of international air and sea routes. 3. It looms as a bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian nations. 4. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian West and largely non-Christian East, hence its role as “the Christian light to the World.
The Philippines in Ancient times
Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period (800,000 – 5, 000 years ago) The era of crude stone tools and weapons.
In the Philippines, it was believed to have started in Cagayan Valley. Man had no other tools than sharp edged stones that could be held by the hand. These stone tools could be used for smashing the bones of animals and shellfish that they have gathered. Archeological evidence shows kinilaw to be the earliest method of preparing fish for consumption where vinegar or lime juice enhances the taste of the fish.
New Stone Age or Neolithic Period (5,000 – 2,500 years ago) otherwise known as Agricultural Revolution by anthropologists New types of stone tools appeared in various parts of the Philippines, more polished and highly specialized, primarily blade and ax – and adz – like forms for forest clearing and boat making Root crops like taro (gabi) and yam (ubi) were among the important crops. This period also indicates that upland rice farming has been developed. Light and heat became available any time of the day.
The manufacture of pottery was made possible by a process called kilning, which makes use of fire. Jars as burial coffins for secondary burial were also made.
Early Metal Age (500BC)
Refers to the time in the development of human culture where tools and weapons were made of metal which gradually replaced stone tools. Jewelry as an ancient art began as amulets and charms to ward off bad spirits or to give supernatural powers to the wearer. In particular tribes like the T’boli, wore body ornaments to please the gods and to signify the status of the wearer. Early Filipinos made metal implements like knives, the sumpak (blowguns), the...
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