1. The Duchy of Modena was a small Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break between 1796 and 1814. It was ruled by the noble House of Este, from 1814 Austria-Este. The Duchy was originally created for the Este family. In 1796, the Duchy was occupied by the French army of Napoleon Bonaparte who created the Cispadane Republic. The last Este Duke, Ercole 3rd, became ruler of former Austrian territories in southwestern Germany. Following his death, Modena was inherited by his son-in-law, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este. With the fall of the Napoleonic system in Italy in 1814, Ferdinand's son, Francis IV, became Duke of Modena.
2. The Duchy of Parma : Dynasty under the reign of the bourbons just before the French revolution. The duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Don Charles. Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies. The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Don Philip, Don Charles's younger brother. As duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma reigning over the Duchy of Parma. In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny Duchy of Lucca. The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and merged with the Kingdom of Sardinia into the Kingdom of Italy in March 1860 after holding a referendum.
3. The Principality of Lucca: Republic established by Napoleon Bonaparte in Lucca (An ancient and historic State of Tuscany, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula) and its environs on Dec. 27, 1801, after his second successful conquest of Italy, driving out the Austrians. It lasted less than four years; in June 1805 he granted Lucca to his sister Élisa Bonaparte as a principality, part of the new French Empire. It had a strong naval force.
4. The Kingdom of Naples comprising the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily. During much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Aragonese (Spanish) dynasties. As a result of the War of Spanish Succession, the Kingdom of Naples came under the influence of the Austrian Habsburgs. Naples was seized by the French. Napoleon first annexed the kingdom to France, then declared it independent, Napoleon gave Naples to his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. Under the French, Naples was modernized by the abolition of feudalism and the introduction of a uniform legal code, and Murat was deservedly popular as king. In 1816, it again merged with the island-based Kingdom of Sicily to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Finally failed in the face of Guiseppe Garibaldi and joined northern Italy as unified in 1860.
5. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the largest of the Italian states before Italian unification. During the Restoration, it was formed of a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples in 1816 and lasted until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Two Sicilies had its capital in Naples and was commonly referred to in English as the "Kingdom of Naples". In 1808, Napoleon appointed his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies. 6. The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the possessions of the House of Savoy from 1720 or 1723. Charles Emmanuel 4 ruled it. Napoleon annexed Piedmont to France after the first coalition. In 1860, Nice and Savoy were ceded to France in return for French consent and assistance in Italian unification. In...
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