Issues Concerning Mentally Retarded (Mr) Individuals

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People with mental retardation exhibit high rates of disturbance. Psychiatric problems that these individuals face exacerbate their difficulties and become a major source of impediment for the community placement for these individuals. Through the expansion of research which has led to the emergence of new knowledge on the necessary intervention for individuals with mental retardation, psychiatrists are able to distinguish between the various forms of psychiatric disorders that are displayed by mentally retarded individuals. The developmental approach is an important form of intervention that can help address the problems that are faced by mentally retarded individuals. This process presumes the process of growth, which underlies the psychological functioning of the individuals with mental retardation (Glidden & Seltzer, 2009). According to Bouras & Jacobson(2002 ), there have been changes in the provision of care for individuals with mental retardation over the recent past. The recent developments, which have led to vital changes in addressing the problems with mentally retarded individuals with the aim of formulating the necessary intervention, have been moves towards integration, choice and participation for individuals who are suffering from mental retardation. This move is a tenet of civil, disability and movements for rights movements, which exist in various countries. Moreover, these movements have played a vital role in pursuing the legal challenges that are often faced by mentally retarded individuals such as the deprivation of their rights, which occurs at a local and national level. These bodies have also sought the help of bureaucrats who are involved in the development of policies that enhance the functions of the service system concerned with mental retardation. Through the advance in numerous disciplines and fields such as psychopharmacology, genetics, education and psychology, there have been signs of improvement of the treatment that is given to individuals that suffer from mental retardation. Another important intervention has been the provision of appropriate models for social care, which has brought substantial impact in the improvement of the quality of life for individuals who are suffering from mental retardation. This has occurred in community settings and has enabled the relevant staffs families and carers to be more effective and increase their involvement in offering the necessary help to the individuals suffering from mental retardation (Hodapp, Burack, & Zigler, 1995). Mentally retarded individuals represent a group of individuals who have wide range of complex needs. Different professions that are involved in the area of offering care and important services to these individuals have an avalanche of perspectives about the MR individuals. This is because the aforementioned professions give inconsistent categories and terms while referring to MR patients. Moreover, Bouras & Jacobson(2002 ) indicate that different cultures use terms that are ill-defined and social labels that are changeable. These terms are often stigmatizing, which makes it increasingly difficult for one to be assured that there is a degree of comparability for individuals with MR in different nations. In the light of this, different terms have been used in different countries with regions like the U.K replacing ‘mentally handicapped’ with a better term such as ‘learning disability’. However, such a move was done without consideration of the connotation of the latter term in various parts of the world. In America, the Association for individuals suffering from mental retardation has maintained the term ‘mental retardation’ with the redefinition of the term as an intellectual functioning that is sub-average. Furthermore, the American society highlights that mentally retarded individuals exhibit lack of skills in communication, home living, healthcare, Social skills, self-direction and functional skills. In countries such as...
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