Religion of Near Eastern- Polytheism (worship of Gods/Goddesses), Corpus of literature that circulated (Epic of Gilgamesh, Canonical texts), Myths/stories about the origin of the world (Atraphasis, Enuma Elish), Life after death (Pyramids).
2. For Mosaic Authorship-
Against Mosaic Authorship- Various repetitions and contradictions; Torah is the work of many compilations of tradition after the time of Moses; Different names for God (Yahweh/ Elohim/Jehovah) Documentary Hypothesis- the view that the Pentateuch is a combination of at least the 4 different source documents (PJED) J- Jehovah/use of Yahweh; colorful/anthropomorphism; Judah; 10th-9th E- Elohim; more angels/dreams; prophets; Israel (Ephraim); 9th-8th D- Deuteronomy; laws; Moses; centralization/monotheism; 621 BCE P- Priestly; Holiness Code; transcendent God; Geneology; 6th Post-exile Criticisms- story best after Babylonian Exile; Texts are composite and incorporate layers from different eras;
3. Genesis- The Primeval History (Gen. 1-11) and The Stories of the Ancestors (Gen. 12-50) Major Themes- Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (Human mistakes/punishment); Cain and Abel (sin); Noah’s Ark; Geneology; The Patriarchs- Abraham/Jacob (Conflict between brothers) ; 13 sons of Jacob- 13 tribes of Israel (Jacob=Israel)
4. The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
The Slavery in Egypt; The Revelation by Moses at Mount Sinai; Ten Commandments; Book of the Covenant; Story of the Golden Calf; Construction and Erection of the Tabernacle 7. Deuteronomy- Exposition (Ch. 1-11); Deuteronomic Code (Ch. 12-26); Blessings and Curses (Ch. 27-28); Witnesses (Ch. 30)