Hospitality industry is the service industry and customers are considered as the kings. As the industry is becoming more and more internationalized, quality has become one of the most concern aspects. Total Quality Management (TQM) is the quality approach to management emphasising quality. ISO, International Organization for Standardization, founded in 1947 and has 162 countries as a member today (ISO 2013). The standard is related to quality management systems and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting the legal requirements related to the products and services (Bozena, Jens et al. 2002).
MBNQA, Malcolm Baldrige National Award, it established in 1987 and was used to Help improve quality in U.S. companies, recognize achievements of excellent firms and provide examples and guidelines to others and it establishes criteria for evaluating quality efforts (Vadevanidis & Krivokapik 2006). The Ritz Carlton Hotel Company was the first hotel company to win the Award in 1992 & 1999 (Cheung & Law 1998).
TQS, Total Quality Service, it is a TQM approach to service industry by Albrecht. In this model, customer perceptions and continuous improvement are the basic key factors (McDonnell 1994). According to Albrecht (1991) TQS is a process that includes; 1. assessment, measurement, and feedback, 2. market and customer research, 3. strategy formulation, 4. education, training, and communication, and 5. process improvement. ‘If total quality service is the ideal, ultimate, never to be arrived at destination, then the TQS approach is the journey’ (Albrecht 1991). (Source: Parker D 1995)
In this figure, Parker (1995) has defined TQS concept in service approach; work done by one person for benefit of other. In hospitality industry; it could be service provided by housekeeping or other ground staff to a guest, service provided within the department or the top management service to employees and to guests. TQS is a state of affairs in which an organisation delivers superior value to its shareholders, its guests, its owner and its employees (Parker 1995). TQS is an emphasized serviced model suitable for service industry and it has more to do with the application of it; where as ISO & MBNQA formalities and paperwork is more important and comes under status category. The biggest contrast of TQS to other two is that TQS is the concept of the “moment of truth” where contact with the customers is straight and opportunity to impress guest is high. TQS takes the concept of customer value beyond the objective characteristics of tangible products to encompass the customer’s reaction to the total experience of using the product and service; this happens because of the immediate contact with the guests (Dewi 2011). ISO is the outer body that could implement several approaches to an organization to get the certificate and so does the MBNQA to participate in it; but TQS is the procedural system that makes it promising to achieve. ISO AND MBNQA are the frameworks of criteria and/or requirements for auditing quality system but TQS is the methodology to overcome the difficulties of measuring the results and outcomes. Nonetheless, these all believed to be the quality drivers.
(Gray, Sohal et al.1994)
Innovation, share accountability, commitment, improved morale, customer relation, improved market reputation, expansion of market and improved viability are some of the changes that TQS brought along with the time. However ISO and MBNQA shares most of these outcomes.
While TQS stands besides ISO and MBNQA, lets look at the ISO & MBNQA. | ISO| MBNQA|
Type| It’s a Certificate.Any company can attain ISO by successfully completing application and audit process.| It’s the Award.It is a recognition of organisation’s excellence performance.| Objectives| * Achieve, maintain, and continuously improve...