Before 610 (AD or CE): pre Islamic Period
Desert: Arid landscape
What made life possible: Camels (endurance and several images in the Qur’an), horses Nomadic way of life: from the highland and to lowland (movement): looking for water and pastures the camel made life in the arabian peninsula possible: he made the mvt & trade possible Transhumance: mvt from high to lowl depending on the season fetching for water & grazing. this mvt was made possible thanks to humans & animals
pockets of sedentary life in 2 main cities:
YATHRIB: Oasis: water makes life possible: many palm trees
MECCA: it is where the Ka'ba is located (hajj) + trade because when people come to worship their gods, they bring goods to exchange… (religion + trade) Customary laws: “3orf” transmitted orally from generation to generation: each tribe respect each tribe’s land
Smallest unit in Arab society: Nuclear family (parents + children + concubines) lives in BAYT Polygamy is lawful from a religious point of view (4 wives)
Before 610, women had so status & were considered as property that you own. Female infanticide (bury the female babies because the families want male heirs) Patriarchy: male dominate the state (society)
Extended family: several tents close to each other: “Dar” Several extended families: Clan (Hashim: clan of the prophet) Several Clans: tribe (Quraysh: tribe of the prophet)
Several tribes: confederacies: union (Qahtan & Adnan)
“Asabiyya”: group solidarity: defend the members of your group against violence or aggression.
Retaliation: “eye for an eye” the system of justice that was based on the concept of 'asabiyya.
- Monotheists: Jews, Christianity and Islam
- Polytheism: believe in many gods
- Paganism: believe in animate (cow) and inanimate (rock)
- Atheism: believe in any God
- Idolatry: Form of polytheism: believe in idols (statues)
Life in Makkah
- HUB: meeting place
- KA’BA: market place and shrine (360 idols)
- Habitants: oral society
- Mu’allaqat: put famous poems on the KA’BA (platform for poets to come & talk about their tribes: self-promotion)
- Bibliography of the prophet: “Sira”. He was orphan: impact on his life in Sira
-Life of the prophet
- 570: the year of the elephant and birth of the prophet in the tribe of Quraysh. During that year, Abraha, the king of Yemen marched on Mecca with his large army and elephants in order to destroy the Ka'ba but his elephant(s) stopped at the boundary of Mecca and refused to enter.
- His parents: Amina and Abdullah: his father died before he was born and his mother when he was 6
-Orphan: starting at disadvantage, he was from the Quraysh tribe raised by his grand parents (Abd al Mutalib and Fatima)
- He was sent to the desert: healthy physical and psychological conditions to raise children
- Hamza: his uncle played a mentor role
- He was being prepared for something big, kind of divine protection even before receiving the message
- He was know for his honesty, generosity and anti-corruption
- Nickname: Al Amine, the trustworthy in Mecca
- His inheritance: a slave “Baraka”, who was a little older than him
- His spent most of his time in the cave of Hira thinking and wondering about the meaning of life
- He was against polytheism
- He is the seal of the prophets (last one)
- 2 major stories:
The night journey (621): Muhammad’s travel: The Isra and Mi'raj: Muhammad travels on the steed Buraq to "the farthest mosque" where he leads other prophets in prayer. He then ascends to heaven where he speaks to God, who gives Muhammad instructions to take back to the faithful regarding the details of prayer.
The story of the black stone: before Islam, the Ka’ba was restored many times and Muhammad had the honor to put the stone inside the Ka’ba. all clans wanted to have the honor to put the stone...