Islamic calligraphy and arabesque.
Islamic art is intellectual, refined and decorative; it contains no strong emotions and pathos but exhibits serene harmony. The term Islamic art covers a broad range of traditions, from metal work, carpet weaving, calligraphy and arabesque to architecture. It includes religious art as well as art made by and for Muslims and object made for Muslims by artists of other faiths. Islamic art can mean different things to different people. To a Muslim it may be an expression of religion, of faith and a sense of closure to the divine. To a non-Muslim it tends to evoke rich and mysterious decorations applied to objects which often have obviously practical purposes and for a tourist it may first present itself in form of distinctive shapes, the noble swell of a dome hovering over the city skyline or the slim and tall minarets against the sunset, but one thing is for certain, it is difficult to see any form of artwork depicting humans or animals. Although the Koran does not ban images, there’s an active tradition in many Islamic countries to avoid religious imagery whenever possible. Some societies strictly adhere to the prohibition, others allow floral designs and other motifs, still others disregard the ban but they are the minority. Mainstream Islam tends to shy away from figurative art. However it is important to note that the ban of figural art did not impede Muslim artists, they directed their passion for art by forming an endless creative expression of abstract designs based on calligraphy and arabesque. Calligraphy is one of the most popular art forms in the Islamic world. It is based upon the Arabic script and varies in form depending on the period and the region of its production. The two main styles of calligraphy are Kufic and naksh. Throughout the history of Islamic art calligraphy has been used for surface decoration in mosques and madrasahs (religious schools), as...