Islamic Architecture - India

Topics: Arch, Taj Mahal, Mosque Pages: 8 (2772 words) Published: April 20, 2014
PROVINCIAL STYLE OF PUNJAB [ 1150 – 1325 ]

# This was the earliest of all the PROVINCIAL STYLES.
# Two principal cities – MULTAN & LAHORE.
# Islam made its way into these cities during different periods and by separate routes. # Lahore, once the provincial seat of the Ghazni rulers became the real capital of Gazhnavide kingdom. # In remote areas of Lahore, there are examples of ancient type of wooden architecture, wood used being “Ber”. # Bricks were remarkably used, they were brad and thin laid in upright courses to ensure additional strength. # Bricks and timber walls were sloped to provide greater stability. # Parts of buildings were decorated with painted plasters and panelings of glazed tiles in brilliant colours. # No complete eg. of building art in Lahore, but in Multan, there are a great of 5 tombs. a. Shah Yusuf Gardizi (1152)

b. Shah Bahau I haqq (1262)
c. Shahdra Shahid (1270)
d. Shah Samsuddin Tikrizi (1276)
e. Shahrukh-I- Alam (1320-24)
All buildings built within a period of 15 years in mid 13th century. They are rectangular in plan &they are in 3 stages (i.e; the elevation).lowest: a square, above is octagonal 2nd storey with the hemispherical dome at the top. 1. SHAH BAHAU-I- HAQQ

# Most representative of this style and the earliest one.
# contain a tall foundational storey of 40ft height.
# Façade has only one feature- a well designed arched doorway in the receding planes.Over the battlemented parapet- this storey rises a lofty octagonal drum forming an arched opening in arched face forming an elegant clear storey above which is the broad ovoid of the dome. # Plainness is almost austere. Devoid of ornamentation but relying for effect on its exellent proportions. 2. SHAHRUKH-I- ALAM

# Executed by Delhi ruler Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq
# One of the most impressive buildings.
# Plan is octagonal (not sq.) base dia-30ft, total ht. Including finial is 115ft – 1st storey-50ft, 2nd storey-25ft, dome width - 50ft. # Brick foundation
# The appearance is enhanced by band of curved timbering sunk into the walls at appropriate intervals. # The slope in structure was emphasized by addition of tapering turrets at the angles to provide rich texture and coloring, brickwork is elaborately chiseled and some parts are laid in brilliantly glazed tiles. # There is a pyramid and inclined buttresses supporting the outer angles. # The walls are of 13ft. solid brickwork through which light passed along the tunnel of clerestorey grills which were a means of shutting out the blistering heat and searing sunlight. # In style the tomb represents three patterns of culture-

(a) Arabian (b) Iranian (c) Indian
# The great elevated height attempts to dominate the surrounding to introduce a focal point of interest into the monotonous landscape.

PROVINCIAL STYLE OF BENGAL ( 1208-1550 )

# Three phases –(a) 1200 –1340 - Capital was Gaur, until capital was shifted to Pandua.
(b) 1340-1430 - Until the Eklakhi Tomb was built.
© 1442 – 1576– Re-established at Gaur,until the country was acquired by the Mughals.

1.PRINCIPAL MOSQUE AT PANDUA
# Large structure, walls and arches are of brick, but the pillars are of Basalt (Orissa & Bengal stone ) (evidently taken from dismantled Hindu temples). # Adjacent to the structure is the Tower of Victory built by Muslim saint – Shah-suri-uddin to commemorate his conquest of Raja of Pandua in 1340 A.D. # The faces and flanges with which its different storeys are decorated have clearly been inspired by Qutb-Minar at Delhi – 120’ tall, but its elegant proportion of width to its height cannot be overlooked. # Less damaged than the remainder stands the central aisle, where still stands to the right of the main Mihrab, the Mimbar in carved stone. # Earliest existing eg. of a multidomed mosque having a quadrangular plan. It was probably the model for the larger and much important ADINA MOSQUE....
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