“Ship of the Desert”: Camel caravans—the “ships of the desert”—crossed the Sahara into West Africa. Social Mobility: The ability to move up in social class.
Mosaic: picture made with small colored pieces: a picture or design made with small pieces of colored material such as glass or tile stuck onto a surface. Arabesque: ornate design: an intricate and often symmetrical design incorporating curves, geometric patterns, leaves, flowers, and animal shapes.
1.) It was a library and university in Baghdad. During the Abbasid period, scholars made advances in a variety of fields. The caliph’s dream was that he met Aristotle, and plied him with questions about ethics, reason, and religion. After, his dream inspired him to action. He had scholars collect the great works of the classical would and translate them into Arabic. 2.) Between 750 and 1350, merchants built a vast trading network across Muslim lands and beyond. Camel caravans—the “ships of the desert”—crossed the Sahara into West Africa. Muslim, Jewish, and Christian traders traveled the Silk Road toward China and were a vital link in the exchange of goods between East Asia and Europe. Monsoon winds carried Arab ships from East Africa to India and southeast Asia. Some traders made great fortunes. Extensive trade and a money economy led Muslims to pioneer new business practices. They created partnerships, bought and sold on credit, formed banks to change currency, and invented the ancestors of today’s bank checks. They English word check comes from the Arabic word sakk. Bankers developed a sophisticated system of accounting. They opened branch banks in all major cities, so that a check written in Baghdad might be cashed in Cairo. 3.) Both Umayyad and Abbasid rulers took steps to preserve and extend agricultural land. Small farming communities in desert areas faced a constant scarcity of water. To improve farm output, the Abbasids organized massive irrigation...
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