Is Breast Cancer a New Ailment to Face Human Kind?

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Is Breast Cancer a New Ailment to Face Human Kind?
A Review of the Literature

Author Notes

This paper was prepared for the Advance Placement® English and Literature Composition Class, taught by

Signature Approval Page
Name of student: T'arrah Mullins
Academic field of interest: Oncology
Proposed thesis: From 2003-2011, breast cancer in the United States did not significantly decrease. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United States. During 2007, new cancer cases were found using more accurate methods and new technology. Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue, which is made up of glands for milk, called lobules. The types of breast cancer can vary from benign, situ, and invasive. Benign results are little to no worry; whereas, situ can usually be cured. When breast cancer is invasive that means it is severe. Is breast cancer a new ailment to face human kind?

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Signature of instructor/date

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Signature of Gifted Guidance Councilor/date

Abstract

From 2003-2011, breast cancer in the United States did not significantly decrease. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United States. During 2007, new cancer cases were found using more accurate methods and new technology. Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue, which is made up of glands for milk, called lobules. The types of breast cancer can vary from benign, situ, and invasive. Benign results are little to no worry; whereas, situ can usually be cured. When breast cancer is invasive that means it is severe. One goal of my research paper is to categorize cancer to understand the prognosis and what treatment options are available. Another goal is to show the distribution of breast cancer across races. Is Brest Cancer a New Ailment to Face Human Kind?

A Review of the Literature
Breast Cancer is not a new ailment to face human kind. In a record referred to as the "Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus", a document dating back to between the years 3000 and 2500 B.C., clinical case studies are outlined for a variety of ailments including a case of, what is loosely translated as, “Lumps of the breast.” (Sullivan, 1996, p. 89). In this, and other Egyptian writings, there emerges a distinction between what is now referred to as movable and non-movable masses, suggesting that non-movable have a more negative prognosis (Sullivan et al., 1996; Pain et al., 2007). An observation that holds true, even to this day (Nelson, et al., 2009, p. 727). Later, in 400 B.C., Hippocrates argued that it was better to leave cancerous growths alone than to kill the patient in risky surgery (Fayed, 2012). Fortunately, surgical and pharmaceutical techniques and technology have come far, but breast cancer still presents as a formidable foe. This literature review provides specific and detailed information concerning these questions:

1. Why is categorizing cancer important to understanding the prognosis and what treatment options are available?

2. Was the distribution of breast cancer uniform across race?

3. Are all studies treated equally?

4. Is screening an important tool for finding breast cancer early?

The human breast is the tissue that is superficial to the pectoralis major muscles on the anterior portion of the human chest wall that usually extends from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib (Tortora & Grabowski, 2001, p. 560). The breast is primarily composed of adipose tissue (fascia), glandular tissue (mammary glands) and vascular tissue (p. 560). The glandular tissue is organized into fifteen to twenty lobes in the breast, arranged like petals of a daisy. Each lobe has tiny lobules, which contain tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes are connected by ducts. During development all persons develop...
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