Iraq: Crucible of Civilization
In around 3500 BC according to archaeologists was the birthplace of civilization at city called Sumer located at lower Mesopotamia which is now known as Iraq.
Mesopotamia is located at the delta of two rivers known as the Tigris and Euphrates that is why it is also called the "Land Between Two Rivers". Mesopotamians introduced to the world numerous tools that we use in our daily life. Some of them were the wheels, sixty-minute hour, 360 degree circle and the codes of law. It is also believed that they formed tyranny, terror and brutal aggression.
Throughout the time of Mesopotamia, city-states battled with each other to gain supremacy. Thus, the first empire emerged. They were the Akkadians lead by Sargon the Great. Their empire pushed through as far as to the east, Elam about 2300 BC. They contributed the first missile age and also the use of plowshare which greened the fields. From 1792- 1595 BC, The first empire emerged and was led by King Hammurabi in which he made the ever popular law. The law is summarize in the saying, "An eye for an eye". Next to the Akkadians, a more powerful force known as the Assyrians conquered Mesopotamia and overthrew the Akkadians. The Assyrians were the most brutal and conquerors of the ancient time because of they're warlike attitudes. They were the once to use the wheeled chariot and also the use of iron and bronze in wars. They were also known for their strategies in battles. In 612 BC, the Scythians, Medes and the Chaldeans overthrew the reign of the Assyrians.
For about 11 centuries, Mesopotamia was dominated by foreign invaders. First were the Persian led by Cyrus the Great. After them came the mighty Greeks inspired by their leader Alexander the Great. He died in Babylon in 323 BC. Mesopotamia is then controlled for 350 years by the Parthians then by the Sassanids. Ending the reign of the Sassanid were the Arabs on 637 AD. From 750 to 1258 AD the Abbasid Caliphate...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document