Iranian Nuclear Program (a International Comparative Political Science Paper)

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Iranian Nuclear Program
The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950's with the United States and many western European governments supporting the program. The nuclear program in Iran was launched under the atoms for peace program which focused on providing energy through nuclear power. The United States and European support continued until the 1979 Iranian revolution which overthrew the ruling monarchy. After being temporarily disbanded, the nuclear program restarted with very little western assistance and major aid from Russia. In the recent years the United Nations reporting agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency, has been denied access to certain plants and certain areas. The International Atomic Energy Agency has declared that there are strong indicators that Iran is trying to develop an atomic bomb. Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968 which focused on three primary directives; non-proliferation, disarmament, and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology. The enforcement agency of said treaty is largely the International Atomic Energy Agency. In 2003 the International Atomic Energy Agency reported that Iran had repeatedly, and over an extended period of time, failed to meet its safeguards obligations. After just over two years of diplomatic efforts and Iran temporarily suspending its enrichment program, the International Atomic Energy Agency board of Governors found that these failures constituted non-compliance. This was reported to the United Nations Security Council in 2006, after which the Security Council passed a resolution demanding that Iran suspend its enrichment program. In response Iran resumed the enrichment program. The current status of Iran's nuclear program remains in dispute, with Iran claiming to have been in compliance the entire time and that it is operating its program for civilian nuclear energy, which is allowed under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The United Nations has welcomed continued dialogue but the United States has stepped up its efforts to impose a new round of sanctions on Iran's nuclear program. Key Asian powers such as India and China have opposed the proposed sanctions. Amidst the continued talks and Iran's defiance with their continued progress in their nuclear program. Israel has grown suspicious of the program. The Israeli Prime Minister has said Israel is determined to prevent Iran from having nuclear weapons, he also states that he will never let his people live in the shadow of annihilation. Speculation is mounting that Iran will launch a pre-emptive attack sometime in 2012.

Taking a look at the situation from a liberalist perspective, Iran would be telling the truth and furthering its nuclear program for civilian uses in order to preserve the oil for sale to other states in order to make a profit. The imposed and threatened sanctions would be a huge deterrent factor for Iran to construct a nuclear weapon under this view. The United States interest in preventing Iran from becoming nuclear war capable could be explained in the sanctions that are currently in place from the United States; a freezing of all property of the Central Bank of Iran and other Iranian financial institutions in the United States as well as imposing penalties in the United States if actors did business with Iran’s central bank. These sanctions would take the flow of money and goods out of Iran and redistribute them throughout the system, which in theory would benefit the United States by bringing a portion of that business to themselves as well as the fiscal gain of actors paying fines to the government. When considering the United Nations stance on Iran's nuclear program from a liberalist perspective, they would also wish Iran to be telling the truth in order for more oil to be exported from Iran in order for the many countries that make up the United Nations to benefit from plentiful oil supplies and suppliers. Israel has a liberalist stake in Iran not...
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