Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring and Modelling

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Vol52,3,2009

20-09-2009

19:06

Pagina 391

ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 52, N. 3/4, June/August 2009

Ionospheric scintillation
monitoring and modelling
Yannick Béniguel (1), Vincenzo Romano (2), Lucilla Alfonsi (2), Marcio Aquino (3), Alain Bourdillon (4), Paul Cannon (5), Giorgiana De Franceschi (2), Smita Dubey (6), Biagio Forte (7), Vadim Gherm (8), Norbert Jakowski (6), Massimo Materassi (9), Thoralf Noack (6), Mariusz Pozoga (10), Niel Rogers (5), Paolo Spalla (9), Hal J. Strangeways (11), E. Michael Warrington (12), Andrzej Wernik (10), Volker Wilken (6) and Nikolay Zernov (8) (1) IEEA, Paris, France

(2) Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma, Italy (3) Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy, IESSG, Nottingham, UK (4) IETR Université de Rennes 1, France
(5) Qinetiq, Malvern, UK
6
( ) DLR, Neustrelitz, Germany
(7) University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia
(8) University of St Petersburg, Russia
9
( ) Institute for Complex Systems, National Council of Researches, Firenze, Italy (10) Space Research Center, Warsaw, Poland
(11) School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK (12) Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, UK

Abstract
This paper presents a review of the ionospheric scintillation monitoring and modelling by the European groups involved in COST 296. Several of these groups have organized scintillation measurement campaigns at low and high latitudes. Some characteristic results obtained from the measured data are presented. The paper also addresses the modeling activities: four models, based on phase screen techniques, with different options and application domains are detailed. Finally some new trends for research topics are given. This includes the wavelet analysis, the high latitudes analysis, the construction of scintillation maps and the mitigation techniques.

electron density inside ionosphere. These irregularities develop after sunset under several deionization instability processes. They induce
random fluctuations of the medium’s refractive
index. These signal fluctuations are referred as
scintillation. The ionosphere scintillation is responsible for signal degradation from the VHF up to the C band. This can affect in particular,
the performance of satellite based navigation
systems.
The ionosphere drifts with respect to the
earth at a velocity in the range of 100 m/s at
low latitudes. This drift velocity may reach values ten times higher at high latitudes. Due to

Key words scintillation – measurement campaigns
– phase screen models – radar – wavelets – maps

1. Introduction
Transionospheric radio signals may experience amplitude and phase fluctuations due to the propagation through irregularities of the

Mailing address: Dr. Yannick Béniguel, IEEA 13, Promenade Paul Dumer, 92400 Courbevoie, France; e-mail: beniguel@ieea.fr

391

Vol52,3,2009

20-09-2009

19:06

Pagina 392

Y. Beniguel, V. Romano, L. Alfonsi, M. Aquino, A. Bourdillon, P. Cannon, G. De Franceschi, S. Dubey, B. Forte, V. Gherm, N. Jakowski, M. Materassi, T. Noack, M. Pozoga, N. Rogers, P. Spalla, H.J. Strangeways, M. Warrington, A. Wernik, V. Wilken and N. Zernov

Event number

Cayenne: Data from June 06 to July 07
S4 level: [0.25-0.4], [0.4-0.55], [>0.55]
Elevation > 20 degrees, After multipath correction
400
300

All the year

200
100
0
12

16

20

24
Hour (HL)

4

8

12

Fig. 1. L band scintillation local time dependency measured in Cayenne (4.82°N 52.36W) during PRIS measurement campaign (courtesy CLS, Toulouse).

Fig. 2. Histogram of intensity and phase scintillations recorded in Vietnam (x axis S4 to be multiplied by .1, y axis the month number, z axis the relative number of occurrences).

viation of the received phase σφ (Yeh and Liu,
1982) allow the scintillations to be classified
into three categories: weak, medium or strong
fluctuations. Observations show that the phase
and...
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