Making an earthquake forecast that is successful is still one of the biggest challenges before the scientists. Losses caused by earthquakes alone are greater than the loss caused by any other natural calamity. Many attempts have been made from ancient times to predict seismic events, but success has not been achieved yet. This is about to change with the study of the ionosphere to aid future predictions. This paper accumulates the recent advances in scientific understanding of the problem of seismo-ionospheric coupling and its effects.
The changes in levels of technology in geology and meteorology have been making it possible to predict weather conditions and other natural hazards. These natural hazards are usually a threat to events that occur naturally and have adverse effects on the environment and eventually affecting the people. (Parrot et al 66). The hazards can be geological or climatic and atmospheric hazards. Geological hazards are avalanches, volcanic eruption, sink holes, and earthquakes. The climatic and atmospheric hazards are droughts, blizzards, hailstorms, mael storms, cyclonic storms, heat waves, ice storms, geomagnetic storms, tornados, climate change and wild fires. In this paper, I will be looking at Ionospheric Earthquake Prediction and its advantages.
Earthquake also called earth tremor, is a natural phenomenon that results when energy stored in the earth crust is suddenly released radiating seismic waves causing short lived episodes of ground shaking. They can last for a few seconds for small earthquakes to several minutes for largest earthquakes and produce several types of seismic waves that propagate through the Earth. Earthquakes are mostly caused by seismic waves from rapture of geological faults. Other activities both natural and manmade can also cause earthquakes; some are volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasting, and nuclear tests. Earthquakes always start at point called the hypocenter and propagate to the epicenter, a point directly above the hypocenter. For decades, the interest in the possibility of a dependable method for earthquake prediction has stumped scientists, geologists, and physicists. Forecasting when and where an earthquake will hit is considered impossible. All this is changing as a recent science technology on ionospheric earthquake prediction holds promise to help in earthquake prediction. Earthquake prediction depends on the seismic waves produced by an earthquake. Earthquakes produce various types of seismic waves which cause rocks to vibrate or shake as they spread through the Earth. Wavelength and amplitude are used to describe a wave. Wavelength is also inversely related to frequency and period. Frequency is the number of cycles per second, and period is defined as the time between successive crests or troughs to pass. The seismic energy from an earthquake spreads out in all directions and propagates through the Earth. Ray fronts which are like ripples on a pond and ray paths which appear to be perpendicular to the ray are used in tracing the path of energy. Waves produced by an earthquake are recorded by a seismograph or seismometer, which then produces a recording of the Earth’s vibrations called a seismogram. The seismographs work by dampening the motion of a recorder which is pen like, with a weight, so that the ground moves relative to the pen during movements or shaking (Moore 508). Earthquakes produce both body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel through the Earth while surface waves only travel on its surface. Body waves travel faster than surface waves and are of two kinds; P waves and S waves. P waves are the fastest, and spread as a dilation and compression of the Earth. S waves are slower and propagate as shearing...