Ionic Reactions Lab

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  • Topic: Solubility, Chemical equation, Carbonate
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Ocean County College
Department of Chemistry
Chem 180
Lab 5: Ionic Reactions

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Abstract:

The purpose of this experiment is to work with aqueous solutions of ionic substances. Aqueous solutions are those solutions in which water is the solvent. When ionic substances are dissolved in water, the ions separate and become surrounded by water molecules. The focus of this experiment is on precipitates. The goal of this experiment is to study the nature of ionic reactions, write balanced equations, and to write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions. A detailed view of the results can be found in the table below.

Cations used: Barium, Copper, Iron, Sodium, Cobalt, Nickel

Anions used: Nitrate, Carbonate, Chloride, Hydroxide, Sulfate, Bicarbonate, Iodide, Phosphate

Questions

A - Compare your results with the solubility rules and/or solubility table in your chemistry text.

B - Do your results agree with your expectations from the solubility rules/table?

Yes, I feel like my results were comparable to the rules on the table in the chemistry text.

C - Which anions generally form precipitates? What are exceptions?

Most salts of carbonate: CO 2-, phosphate: PO 3-, oxalate: C2O4 2-, chromate, CrO4 2-, sulfide: S 2-, and most metal hydroxides and oxides. Exceptions include alkali metal hydroxides and Ba(OH)2.

D - Which anions generally do not form precipitates? What are the exceptions?

See solubility table/rules below

Salts of nitrate: NO3-, chlorate: ClO3-, perchlorate: ClO4-, acetate: CH3CO2-, almost all salts of Cl-, Br-, I-, Salts of sulfate: SO4 2-.

E - Which cations generally do not form precipitates?

Cations of group 1 and 2 have few insoluble salts, so they do not form precipitate.

F - Select 10 reactions that produce a precipitate, color change, or gas and write balanced chemical equation and a net ionic equation for each. Remember, a reaction may be indicated by the formation of a precipitate, color change, or the formation of gas. Record the well numbers of the precipitates you chose for your equations.

1) Well D3

Balanced: Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) ( BaSO4 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) ( BaSO4 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) ( BaSO4 (s)

2) Well A7

Balanced: Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) ( CoOH (s) + Na(NO2)2 (aq) Co 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ( CoOH (s) + Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Co 2+(aq) + OH- (aq) ( Co(OH)2 (s)

3) Well C5

Balanced: Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) ( FeCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) + 3 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) ( FeCO3 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 3 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Fe 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) ( FeCO3 (s)

4) Well E5

Balanced: Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2HCO3 (aq) ( Ni(HCO3)2 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Ni 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq) ( Ni(HCO3)2 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Ni 2+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq) ( Na(HCO3)2 (s)

5) Well D7

Balanced: Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) ( Ba(OH)2 (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ( Ba(OH)2 (s) + Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Ba 2+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ( Ba(OH)2 (s)

6) Well B2

Balanced: Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + NaI (aq) ( CuI (s) + Na(NO3)2 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + I- (aq) ( CuI (s) + Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Cu 2+ (aq) + I- (aq) ( CuI (s)

7) Well B6

Balanced: Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) ( CuCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) ( CuCO3 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

Net Ionic Equation: Cu 2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) ( CuCO3 (s)

8) Well A1

Balanced: Co(NO3)2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq) ( CoPO4 (s) +...
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