The Decoction of Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) as bioetylene for faster fruit ripening
Jan Paula Soco
Teresa Joyce Soon
Review of Related Literature
Nutritional value for 100 g of edible portion
•Moisture 94.2-94.7 g
•Protein 0.61 g
•Ash 0.31-0.40 g
•Phosphorus 11.1 mg
•Calcium 3.4 mg
•Iron 1.01 mg
•Thiamine 0.010 mg
•Riboflavin 0.026 mg
•Carotene 0.035 mg
•Ascorbic Acid 15.5 mg
•Niacin 0.302 mg
Ethylene is one of the most important platform chemicals in use today which is produced from petrochemical feedstock. Bio-ethylene made from bio-ethanol (from biomass) represents a chemically identical alternative to ethylene. Compared to the petrochemical equivalent, the main advantages of bio-ethylene are that it can reduce greenhouse gas lifetime emissions (from both production and use) and the dependence of
the chemical industry on fossil-fuels.
Bio-ethanol can be obtained by
fermentation of sucrose feedstock such as
sugarcane, and from starchy biomass such as corn by hydrolysis followed by fermentation. These two production routes are well developed and used for production of bio-ethanol as a transport fuel in countries such as Brazil, the US, Europe and China. Besides sugarcane and corn, ligno-cellulosic biomass can also be used as a feedstock, but the conversion into bio-ethanol is more challenging and costly due to the biomass chemical structure. If technology advances will overcome these issues, bioethanol and bio-ethylene production from lingo-cellulosic biomass could become economically attractive. In Brazil, bio-ethylene production is already economically competitive due to the large availability of cheap sugarcane feedstock, extensive experience in ethanolproduction and the increasing oil prices. This has led to announce new sugarcane-based bio-ethylene capacity. A new plantproducing 200 kt per year is already in operation.
Bio-ethylene production based on sugarcane is estimated to save about 60% fossil energy compared to petrochemical production as the process can also produce electricity. Associated greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from cradle to factory gate are about 40% less than the petrochemical production. In comparison, bio-ethylene from corn and ligno-cellulose can save less energy and GHG emissions because related processes do not export electricity. However, ligno-cellulosic bio-ethylene would be much less demanding in terms of land use. The production costs of sugarcane-based bio-ethylene are very low in Brazil and India, i.e. around USD 1,200/t
e production based on sweet sorghum is estimated at about USD 1, 700/t. Higher costs are reported in the United States (from corn) and in the European Union (from sugar beet
) at about USD 2,000/t and USD 2,600/t,
respectively. At present, the cost of lignocellulose-based production is estimated at USD 1,900-2,000/t in the US. For comparison, the cost of petrochemical ethylene is substantially lower, i.e. USD 600 to 1,300/t depending on regions, with a global average of USD1,100/t. The current production cost of bio-ethyleneis between 1.1 and 2.3 times higher than the global average petrochemical ethylene, but ligno-cellulosic bio-ethylene is expected to reduce the gap in a near future.
If all bio-ethanol currently produced for the transport sector (i.e. 61 million tonnes) was to be converted into bio-ethylene, this bio-ethylene would meet about 25% of the current global demand. Projections suggest bio-ethylene could meet between 40% and 125% of the global demand in 2035, depending on scenarios and taking into account co-products. However, several industrial sectors (transportation fuels,
power generation and chemical industry) might compete for the availability of biomass feedstock, and starchy and sucrose biomass alone cannot meet the...