In my coursework I will be mainly concentrating on the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid with marble chips (calcium carbonate).
Calcium carbonate (marble chips) + hydrochloric acid ==> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl (aq) ==> CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
The aim of the experiment is to investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips, i.e. how quickly/how much hydrogen is produced.
Firstly I would like to establish the term rate of reaction', the term means how fast a reaction occurs it could also mean in other aspects how slow the reaction occurring takes place.
There are a number of factors that determine the rates of reaction, listed below are the factors affecting the rate of reaction:
(a) the solution concentration,
(b) the temperature of the reactants,
(c) the size of the solid particles (surface area effect),
(d) a catalyst
A chemical reaction can only occur between particles if only they collide he reactant particles must collide therefore this only occurs in the collision theroy, the collision theory is the process in which reactant particles collide with each other, the collision must have enough energy for the particles to react. The minimum energy needed for particles to react is called the activation energy, however not all particles bring about a chemical change. More collision increases the rate of reaction.
Temperature increases the number of collisions, as the temperature is increased the particles move quicker. Reactions get faster as the temperature is increased in this case the same mass of gas would be given off because you still have the same quantities of everything in the mixture.
As a catalyst is placed in a chemical it speeds up a reaction without changing the original solution in a chemical., therefore in practical it looks like... [continues]
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