Data collection procedures
This chapter deals with the procedures of the data collection, samples and population. This chapter reveals the errors which students make in formal and informal writing through the tool that the researcher uses; the tool is the test. The test consists of five questions and 40 items of sentences and situations which have different categories concerning formality or informality. The validity of the test can be done through pilot test, then final test will follow, finally test-retest will be done to make the test more reliable. 3.1 The Sample
To achieving the aim of the study, fourth-year college students in departments of English language in colleges of Language, Education and Basic Education for academic year 2012-2013 has been selected as a sample for the study. The aim behind selecting fourth year student because they have studies writing courses and communication courses. They are supposed to have a good knowledge in using the category of vocabularies. Concerning the process of data collection, the first, is pilot test, in that process 42 students were chosen and taking only 24 students among them, as there were unanswered questions. The second process is the final test, choosing the students from English departments is depended on Statistical size description formula, because the total number of students in fourth year are …….(……. male, …….. female) students (see table 1). in which 101 Table (1)
No| College| Department| Fourth stage|
| | | male| female| Chosen students |
| | | | | Male | female|
1| College of language | English| 25| 65| 9| 28|
3| College of education | English| 26| 45| 13| 18|
4| College of basic education | English| 19| 35| 13| 20| Total| 70| 145| 35| 66|
students were chosen they were fourth year students, in college of languages 9 males and 28 females were chosen, in college of education 13 males and 18 females were chosen and in college of basic education 13 males and 20 females were chosen. Binusm yan na
3.2 The Tool
3.2.1 The Test:
Test: is “Any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance” Richards and Richard (2010 P.591). There are many other definitions for the term test, but it is worthy to mention a definition which directly related to language testing. Thornbury states that testing is “a form of assessment. It can happen at any stage of teaching/learning process” Thornbury (2006, p.227). The definitions are clear in their connotations, test uses to measure testees ability that he have, the knowledge that he acquired and the output of the knowledge that he acquired. Designing a test needs a plan or at least searching numbers of reliable sources to design the test that researcher intends to do. Testing categories of vocabularies is challenging as the topic has a small number of sources to examine the range of formality and informality. Researcher mainly depends on four sources. …………………… The test consists of 4 questions, two questions for recognition and two other questions for production level of testees. Recognition level consists of 20 items while production level only two questions, each question contain five guided questions. Heaton (1988: 11-12) states that a good type of test is one which consists of “recognition-type items” or “production-type items” or combining both. The recognition test is intended to assess the capacity of students in recognizing the right answer; while, the production test, is intended to assess the ability of students in producing the language.
3.2.2Pilot test: a pilot test or a pilot study is a “small-scale replica and a rehearsal of the main study”. The aim of pilot test is to find out possible weaknesses, inadequacies, ambiguities, and problems in all aspects of the test; so that they can be corrected before the actual test or final test takes place. To sum up the main purposes of pilot test is to: 1- Estimate...