Investigating How Concentration of Acid Affects the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Investigating How Concentration of Acid Affects the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid



According to the collision theory temperature, concentration, surface

area and catalysts all affect rates of reaction as shown in the

diagrams below. Increasing any of these should increase the number of

collisions and so increase the reaction rate up to an optimum point.

Increasing the temperature causes the particles to collide with more

energy and more frequently, thereby increasing the reaction rate.

Surface area is like concentration in that the greater numbers of

particles present means that a useful collision is more likely

(collision theory). Catalysts provide a surface area for reactions to

take place on and so also increase the chances of a reaction.

I will be investigating concentration and how it affects the rate of

reaction in the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric

acid. Concentration will be my variable (different mole) and the only

thing to be changed each time. Temperature can change easily and is

difficult to keep constant and surface area is very difficult to

measure and almost impossible with chips of marble. No catalysts were

available for use so I could not investigate this leaving me with my

choice of concentration as the variable in the reaction below:

CaCO + 2HCL à CaCL + H O + CO

Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid à Calcium Chloride + Water +

Carbon Dioxide

Temperature Surface Area

Concentration Catalyst



If a solution (HCL) is made more concentrated it means that there are

more particles of reactant colliding between the water molecules,

which makes collisions between the reactants (HCL and Calcium

carbonate) more likely and so increasing the rate of reaction. From

this theory I predict that the higher the concentration, the quicker

the rate of reaction will be, shown by the displacement of water. The

water will be displaced by the carbon dioxide because in a higher

concentration of HCL there will be more HCL acid molecules per set

volume. This means that there will be a higher chance of the HCL

molecules colliding with the Calcium carbonate and reacting. This in

theory should increase the rate of reaction. The increase in

concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of the

reaction rate at a given time, this is because by doubling the number

of HCL molecules present the chance of a collision should also be

doubled, as there is now twice the possibility.

Activation energy is the initial minimum amount of energy needed to

break initial bonds. It should not affect this experiment as the same

amount of kinetic energy is needed to break the bonds of reacting

particles in all acid concentrations. If I was investigating a

catalyst it would effect the experiment as the catalyst may weaken

bonds meaning that less energy is needed and so speeding up the

reaction as shown in the diagram below:



To make sure that the experiment is carried out safely in the lab I

will do the following:

* Wear safety goggles at all times especially as I will be using a


* Do not run in the lab and tuck stools under so as not to knock any

equipment or reactants over.

* Always stand up when doing experiments so I can move away from any

dangers quickly.

* Be careful when using glassware and any acid spills must be dealt

with immediately.

Fair Test


The results will be recorded from a burette showing the displacement

of water. The reaction produces carbon dioxide that is less dense and

rises up to the top of the burette, forcing the water into...
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