Inventory Costing Methods

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 188
  • Published : September 29, 2010
Open Document
Text Preview
Inventory Costing Methods

Simplified Cost of Goods Sold Formula
Cost of goods sold:

Beginning inventory + Net Purchases = Cost of goods available for sale - Ending inventory = Cost of goods sold

$ 20 100 120 (30)
$ 90

What Value Do You Assign Inventory & COGS If You Bought Inventory at Different Prices? Beg. Inventory Purchase #1 Purchase #2 Goods Available
Cost of Goods Sold Ending Inventory

10 units 20 units 24 units 54 units
50 units 4 units

@ $10 /unit @ $13 /unit @ $17 /unit

= $100 = $260 = $408 $768
= ? = ?

@ @

? /unit ? /unit

Value depends upon cost flow method!!

Cost Flow Methods Allowed per GAAP
(and Frequency of Usage)
•Specific identification •Weighted-average •First-in, first-out (FIFO) •Last-in, first-out (LIFO) Must disclose method used in notes to financial statements
*includes specific identification

Demonstration Problem
Kip’s Cap Company
Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory Purchase Sale Purchase Sale Units 10 x 20 x 22 x 24 x 28 x $/Unit $10 = $13 = $20 = $17 = $25 = Total $100 $260 $440 $408 $700

Assume ending inventory includes 2 units from March 4th purchase and 2 units from the March 18th purchase.

Weighted-Average (Average Cost) Method
• • COGS & inventory values based on weighted average Smooths out the price changes

cost of goods available for sale number of units available for sale

Weighted Average
Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory Purchase Sale Purchase Sale Units 10 20 22 24 18 $/Unit x $10 x $13 x $20 x $17 x $25 Total = $100 = $260 = $440 = $408 = $700

Goods Purchased Cost of Goods Sold Beg. Inventory 20 x $13 = $260

22 x $12 =
24 x $17 = $408

$264

18 x $15.75 = $283.5 Total COGS $547.5

Inventory Balance Ave. 10 x $10 = $100 20 x $13 = $260 30 $360 $12.00 8 x $12 = $96 24 x $17 = $408 32 $504 $15.75 14 x $15.75 = $220.5 End. Inv. $220.5

a

b

a) $360 / 30 units = $12 average cost per unit b) $504 / 32 units = $15.75 average cost per unit

FIFO(Typically reflects physical flow of inventory) – first units in first out Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory Purchase Sale Purchase Sale Units 10 20 22 24 18 $/Unit x $10 x $13 x $20 x $17 x $25 Total = $100 = $260 = $440 = $408 = $700

Goods Purchased Beg. Inventory 20 x $13 = $260

Cost of Goods Sold

Inventory Balance 10 x $10 = $100 20 x $13 = $260 30 $360

10 x 12 x 22
24 x $17 = $408 8 x 10 x 18

$10 = $13 =

$100 $156 $256

8 x $13 = $104 24 x $17 = $408 32 $512

$13 $17

= $104 = $170 $274 $530

14 x $17 = $238 End. Inv. $238

Total COGS

LIFO-last units in reflects performance) first out (If inventory costs rising, more accurately Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory Purchase Sale Purchase Sale Units 10 20 22 24 18 $/Unit x $10 x $13 x $20 x $17 x $25 Total = $100 = $260 = $440 = $408 = $450

Goods Purchased Beg. Inventory 20 x $13 = $260

Cost of Goods Sold

Inventory Balance 10 x $10 = $100 20 x $13 = $260 30 $360

20 x 2 x 22 x

$13 $10

= $260 = $20 = $280

24 x $17 = $408
18 x $17 = $306

8 24 32 8 6 14

x $10 = $80 x $17 = $408 $488 X $10 = $80 X $17 = $102 $182
$182

Total COGS

$586

End. Inv.

Periodic Method
• Separate purchases from sales • Calculate cost of goods available (COGA) • Calculate LIFO, FIFO, Weighted Average without regard to date of sale.

Weighted Average- Periodic
Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory Purchase Sale Purchase Sale Units 10 20 22 24 18 $/Unit x $10 x $13 x $20 x $17 x $25 Total = $100 = $260 = $440 = $408 = $700

3/1 3/4 3/18

Goods Available for Sale Beg. Inventory 10 x $10 = Purchase 20 x $13 = Purchase 24 x $17 = 54 Less: Sales -40 End. Inventory 14

$100 $260 $408 $768

$768 / 54 = $14.22

COGA Less End. Inv. Cost of Goods Sold

14 x $14.22 =

$768.00 - 199.08 $568.92

First In First Out (FIFO) - Periodic
Date 3/1 3/4 3/8 3/18 3/25 Activity Beg. Inventory...
tracking img