Planning as a process begins with objectives and defined strategies, policies and detailed plan to achieve the desired results. Instructional planning is the ability of teacher to visualize and forecast into the future of the what, why, and how of the teaching-learning process. Systematic planning, developing, evaluating, and managing the instructional process based on principles of learning and instruction. Effective instructional planning is a key to motivating students' academic growth. Successful teachers say it matters how a lesson is introduced, how meaningful the content appears to students, the pace at which information is imparted, the amount of variety introduced, and the amount of student involvement. Here are some suggestions for how to meet these challenges throughout the school year. Teachers engage the five levels of planning:
yearly, term, unit, weekly and daily. Planning in each level involves a set of goals, sources of information, forms or outlines, and criteria for judging the effectiveness of planning. At the unit, weekly, and daily levels, they are almost influenced by: • Availability of materials,
• Student interest,
• School calendar,
• District curriculum guides,
• Text-book content,
• Classroom management,
• Classroom activity flow, and
• Prior experience.
Basis of instructional planning
Effective planning is based on knowledge of
1. The general goals of the school,
2. The objectives of the course or subject,
3. Students’ abilities, aptitudes, needs, and interest,
4. Techniques of short-range instruction or lesson planning.
In planning, teachers use instructional routines for questioning, monitoring and managing students, as well as for coordinating classroom activities.
Importance of instructional planning
Instructional planning provides an overview of instruction by way of presenting a clean total picture of the lesson for the day or for the entire year.
Instructional planning makes learning purposeful. The teacher’s clear understanding of the pupils’/students’ behavior will in effect, help increase learners opportunities for learning and reduce to a great extent anxiety and uncertainty.
Instructional planning enables the teachers to engage in reflective thinking before writing a unit lesson plan.
Other related importance’s of instructional planning are:
• Provides for logical sequencing and pacing of lessons.
• Economizes costs-=time and energy.
• Provides for variety of instructional objectives.
• Creates the opportunity for higher level of questioning.
• Prepares pupils/students for the day’s activities.
Principles of instructional planning
A principle is an accepted or professed rule of action. In instructional planning, there are certain principles to be observed.
➢ To understand to rationale of the course in the context of the goals of the educational institution. ➢ To determine what content to incorporate into the course in relation to the set objectives. ➢ To clarify thrusts of the course.
➢ To decide on the reasonable time frame for the course ➢ To identify the important components of the lesson; see if they: o Meet the objectives of the course
o Foster critical or higher-order thinking o Match pupils’/students’ abilities o Stimulates pupils’/students’ interest o Are realistic in terms of the school resources o Balances in terms if scope and sequence ➢ To determine the appropriate approach in view of the goals.
1. Analyze Learners
• Students’ general ability level