Introduction to a Critical Evaluation of the Psychological Foundations of Education, Theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Ericson and Kohlberg

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  • Topic: Developmental psychology, Kohlberg's stages of moral development, Jean Piaget
  • Pages : 3 (958 words )
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  • Published : October 16, 2011
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Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development:
Piaget’s theory is based on stages, whereby each stage represents a qualitatively different type of thinking. Children in stage one cannot think the same as children in stage 2, 3 or 4 etc. Transitions from one stage to another are generally very fast, and the stages always follow an invariant sequence. Another important characteristic of his stage theory is that they are universal; the stages will work for everyone in the world regardless of their differences  Piaget acknowledged that there is an interaction between a child and the environment, and this is a focal point for his theory. He believed a child cannot learn unless they are constantly interacting with their environment, making mistakes and then learning from them. He defined children as “lone scientists”; he did not identify any need for teachers or adults in cognitive development. Children have all the cognitive mechanisms to learn on their own, and the interaction with their environment allows them to do so. Piaget led to forming a theory when he asked his two children to express their beliefs in a particular situation. Since he is the founder of Cognitivism, his work possesses novelty. As long as it is in relation to cognition and comprehension, this theory may provide the answer about the different phenomena encountered by individuals in a certain point of time. This is also true in Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories— as long as morality and psychosocial aspects of growth are concerned, their theories can provide the answer.       Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Development:

Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a...
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