Introduction to Tourism

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2.Literature review4
2.1The five phases of tourist experiences4
Figure 2: the three phases of the vacation experience (Craig - Smith & French, 1994)5
2.2Tourist motivations6
2.3Tourist typologies6
3.Personal holiday experience8
3.1Phases of holiday8
3.1.1Anticipation phase8
3.1.2Travel to site8
3.1.3On site activity8
3.1.4Return travel9
3.3Tourist typologies9

List of figures
Figure 1: the travel experience (killion, 1992 after Clawson (1963))5
Figure 2: the three phases of the vacation experience (Craig - Smith & French, 1994)5
Figure 3: tourist typologies (Mehmetoglu, 2004)7

1. Introduction
Tourist experiences can’t be bought. They can only take shape in the mind of the tourist. (Tommy, 2007) 1.1 Purpose:
This paper aims to understand what drives a tourist and to identify the factors which influence their choices. To identify the link between the motives of the tourist and phases which they go through in the process of experiences and to identify how this relates to the types of tourists. 1.2 Scope:

This paper has a central discipline that being the tourism field. This paper will provides information based on literature and electronic sources to indicate the phases of tourist’s experiences, the motives of the tourist and the categories that tourists may be identified by. This paper will also provide a personal experience which will be applied to the literature. 1.3 Limitations:

Limitations of this paper include the word restriction limiting full explanation and in depth inquiry. The material used are from secondary source, however the reliability of these sources have been taken into account. 1. Literature review

2.4 The five phases of tourist experiences
Most literature on the experience of tourists is based on the model developed by Clawson and Knetsch’s 1966 model. This model includes five phases: (1) an anticipation phase (2) travel to site (3) on site activity (4) return travel and (5) recollection. (botterill & Crompton, 1996) Planning

Travel to
Return travel
Jennings and Nickerson, (2006) cite variuos authors and their views of the phases of the tourist experience. figure 1 by Killion (1992) views the tourism experience a circular activity, in contrat to this clawson represents the experience as a linear process with a specific beginning and end point.a further variation of killson model is where the phases may be repeated as when travelling to multiple destinations (jennings 1997). Craig- Smith and French provide a simplistic model which sees the tourist experience in three phase. Namely the anticipatory phase, experential phase,and the reflective phase. Figure 1.2 Figure 1: the travel experience (killion, 1992 after Clawson (1963)) Anticipatory


Figure 2: the three phases of the vacation experience (Craig - Smith & French, 1994)

2.5 Tourist motivations
‘Travel motivation is the motivation to travel and refers to a set of needs that predisposes a person towards a certain tourist activity’ Pizam, Neumann, and Reichel,( 1979) cited by Kao, Patterson, Scott, and Li (2008) Fodness (1994) cited by (Correia & Pimpao, 2008, p. 337) argue that the theories of motivation describe ‘a dynamic process of internal psychological factors (needs, desires and goals) which generate a level of tension in an individual and influence him or her towards purchase.’ in the case of a tourist to purchase a tourism product such as a trip or accommodation. The most accepted model of motivations is based on the research of Crompton (1979) his model represents the two forces which motivate tourists they are the push and pull factors cited by Correia and...
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