Introduction to Sociology and Political Science

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Hong Kong, a special administrative region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is located in the southern coast of China, surrounded by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea. It is well known of having a vast skyline and deep natural harbor, and is one of the world’s most densely populated areas in the world.

Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geographic and political geopolitical field under the jurisdiction of the PRC’s terminology to describe, generally excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Between Hong Kong and Mainland China, there are many complicated relation: History, culture, economic, society, education, etc. How do these relations affect Hong Kong and Mainland China?

History

In the First Opium War, on 29th August 1842, China signed a peace treaty, the Treaty of Nanking, ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain, together with the neighboring Ap Lei Chau. In 1898, the United Kingdom(UK) signed the Extension of Hong Kong boundary of special articles and a series of other rental treaty with the Chinese, rent the outlying islands of the northern part of the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and adjacent to more than two hundred islands, a term of 99 years, and at the end of 1997.

The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the UK to RPC, called “the Handover” internationally and “the Return” or “The Reunification” from the Mainland China, took place on 1st July 1997, and marked the end of British rule in Hong Kong. Since 1st July 1997, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law of Hong Kong was formally established. Implementation of “one country, two systems” in Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy, and only the defense and foreign affairs are responsible by the Central People’s Government.

Since Hong Kong had been ruled and run by the British for almost 100 years, both the culture and live style of people living in Hong Kong had adapted and used to the Western style which is having a great difference with those in the Mainland China. These differences have caused a great deal of problems and argument between people in Hong Kong and that of Mainland China. Conflicts are still happened from time to time nowadays.

Culture

Hong Kong’s culture can be best described as a foundation that began with China, and become more influenced by British colonialism. After the transfer of sovereignty to the PRC in 1997, Hong Kong continues to develop an identity of its own identity. Hong Kong Cultural interesting characteristics, both because of over two thousand years, the population of Hong Kong is Chinese, influenced by the Chinese culture, but also became a British colony in the past hundred years and therefore subject to western culture impact of collusion unique. As the effect of British rules, Hong Kong citizen starts to believe socialism and modern liberalism, which means that government power, is seen as a positive force in protecting the individual. Modern liberalism emphasizes the importance of the social and economic security of a whole population as a prerequisite to individual self-realization and self-development.

On the other hand, the principles of communism began to spread in China after the fall of Qing Dynasty. These ideals attracted the majority of the people. People belonging to the lower strata were for these principles especially for the law of equality. Communism is a revolutionary socialist movement, the establishment of a classless and stateless social order structure in the co-owner of the production, as well as the social, political and economic ideology, which aims at the establishment of such a social order. Individuals must live from day to day. They have little confidence in their ability to influence what happens to them. Their self-confidence is low, they feel little attachment to community, and they tend to...
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