Introduction to Robotic Technology

Topics: Robot, Robotics, Industrial robot Pages: 7 (1307 words) Published: February 17, 2011
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Learning Objectives
    Explain about safety in robotics Describe types of robots Explain about robot history Explain about robot configuration

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Introduction
• What is robot ?
– A mechanical unit consisting of axes and arms driven by servo motors or other motion driver.

• Robotics – technology dealing with the design, construction and operation of robots. • In Europe, Robotics defined as “the science of robotology” (‘the means by which robot machines are put together and made to work’ 15S-3

Laws of robots (by Asimov)
• A robot must not harm a human being, nor through in inaction allow one to come to harm • A robot must always obey human beings, unless that is in conflict with the first ‘law’ • A robot must protect itself from harm, unless that is in conflict with the first two ‘laws’ • A robot may take a human being’s job. But it may not leave that person jobless (Norman). 15S-4

Introduction
 The place where arms are connected called JOINT or AXIS
 Main axes : J1, J2 and J3  Wrist axes : used to move and end effector (tool/hand) mounted on the wrist flange (J4 and J5)

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Robot Safety Introduction
• 1) 2) 3) 4) Perform intricate functions that are Hazardous Repetitive Unsafe Unpleasant

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Safety in Robotics
• It has gained critical importance due to

1) Increased use of robots for industrial use 2) Sophisticated programmed control 3) Increased usage in hazardous operations

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Types of accident
• • • • Impact or Collision Accidents Crushing and Trapping accidents Mechanical parts accidents Others

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Sources of hazards
• • • • • • • Human errors Control errors Unauthorized access Mechanical failures Environmental sources Power systems Improper installation 15S-10

Control Measures
• Pre-installation control measures • Installation control measures • Post installation control measures

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Pre installation control measures
• Shall meet minimum design requirements • Shall meet minimum manufacturing requirements • Older robots should be upgraded to present industry standard

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Installation control measures
• Installed by competent persons • Safeguarding devices should be enforced • Follow standard installation procedures

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Post installation control measures
• • • • • • • Risk assessment Safe guarding devices Awareness devices Safe guarding the programmer Safe guarding the operator Ensure continuous safe guarding operations Manual mode or teach mode while doing maintenance 15S-14

Post Installation (Cont’)
• Periodic maintenance procedures • Safety robotic training

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Safety Precautions
• • • • • Safety of operator Safety of tools and peripheral devices Safety of the robot mechanism Safety of the end effector Safety in maintenance

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Early Robot History
• 12 – 13 th Century Al-Jazari Ingenious Mechanical devices for clock etc. His Book (1206) on ‘Book of Knowledge on Ingenious mechanical devices” contributed to the history of robotics and automation.

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Early Robot History
• 1890s: Nikola Tesla designs the first remote control vehicles. He is also known for his invention of the radio, induction motors, Tesla coils. • 1892: In the United States, Seward Babbitt designs a motorized crane with gripper to remove ingots from a furnace

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Early Robot History
 1921 The history of robot terminology begins from 1921, when the first reference to the word robot appears in a play opening in London. • The play, written by Czechoslovakian Karel Capek, introduces the word robot from the Czech robota, which means tedious labor.

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Early Robot History
• 1938 The first programmable paint-spraying mechanism is designed by Willard Pollard and Haroid Roselund for the DeVilbiss Company. • 1951 The first teleoperated articulated arm was designed by Raymond Goertz for the Atomic Energy Commission. The design is based entirely on...
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