Introduction to Psychology Notes

Topics: Classical conditioning, Memory, Operant conditioning Pages: 37 (9006 words) Published: March 7, 2012
PS 102

Chapter 6

Classical Conditioning
* Learning: refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour of knowledge that is due to experience * Mild phobias are commonplace
* Classical conditioning: is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus * First described by IVAN PAVLOV

* Pavlovian conditioning
* Conditioning comes from Pavlov’s determination to discover the “conditions” that produce this kind of learning

Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes”
* Prominent Russian psychologist
* Nobel prize winner on digestion
* Pavlov studied the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs, he discovered psychic reflexes * Accidental discovery
* Discovered dogs would salivate even before meat powder was present (by clicking of machine that would dispense the meat powder) * Presented tone with meat powder, and dogs would salivate to the sound of the tone * Pavlonian conditioning evolved because it increases reproductive fitness

Terminology and Procedures
* Unconditioned Stimulus: (UCS) a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning * Unconditioned Response: (UCR) an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning * Conditioned Stimulus: (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response * Conditioned Response: (CR) a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning * Pavlov’s initial demonstration:

* UCR and CR were both salivation
* When evoked by UCS (meat powder) salivation was the unconditioned response * When evoked by the CS (the tone) salivation was a conditioned response * Trial: any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
* Phobias
* Advertising: associate well known people, celebrities, cute children or puppies with products, positive

Conditioning and Psychological Responses
* Affects not only overt behaviours but physiological as well * Robert Adler and Nicholas Cohen
* Show classical condition procedures can lead to immunosuppression * Decrease in the production of antibodies
* Classical conditioning also relates to allergic reactions, drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, sexual arousal, increased sperm release, fetishes

Conditioning and Drug Effects
* Drug tolerance: a gradual decline in responsiveness to a drug with repeated use, so that larger doses are required * Compensatory CRs: partially compensate for some drug effects, opponent responses as the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants and alcohol * Help maintain homeostasis in physiological processes * Counterbalance some of the potentially dangerous effects of various drugs * Drug administration process can become a CS associated with drug effects * As compensatory CRs strengthen they neutralize more and more of a frugs pleasurable effect

Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning
* Most conditioned processes are reflexive and difficult to control

Acquisition: Forming New Responses
* Acquisition: refers to the initial stage of learning something * Acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity * Stimuli are contiguous if the occur together in time and space

Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses
* Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency * The consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone without the unconditioned stimulus leads to extinction * Ex. presenting only the tone without the meat powder to the dogs * Depends on strength of the conditioned bond when extinction begins * Some...
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