In Introduction to Psychology we touched briefly on a lot of the components of psychology. It is an introduction class, so it does not go deeply into any one category, instead just skims most of them. I learned what qualifies psychology as a science, the brain and how it is important in the science of psychology. I learned about sensation and perception and then did a project on how psychoactive drugs alter them. We talked in depth about learning, classical conditioning specifically, and covered operant conditioning quite thoroughly as well.
Freud was discussed quite often, since he is seen as the founder of psychology. The psychodynamic theories on development, personality, and psychological disorders as well as other theories are some of the subjects I will be going into depth in this paper. What is Psychology?
The textbook describes psychology as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (Ciccarelli & White, p. 4, 2009)”. In class, the definition of psychology we used is “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external state (K. Hoecker, class lecture, 2010)”. The four goals of psychology are to describe, understand, predict, and modify why behavior is happening (Ciccarelli & White, p. 5, 2009). Psychology is a social science, focused on the individual, which is related to sociology, anthropology, political science, and economics (K. Hoecker, class lecture, 2010). What Are the Models of Psychiatry?
There are seven models of psychiatry mentioned in the textbook: psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, sociocultural, biopsychological, and evolutionary (Ciccarelli & White, p. 13-16, 2009). In class we also discussed the feminist perspective (K. Hoecker, class lecture, 2009). The original psychoanalytical theory was based on Freud and he believed that sex and sexual motivations were behind a person’s behavior. Modern psychodynamic theory focuses on childhood experiences and unconscious thoughts in relationship to a person’s behavior (Ciccarelli & White, p. 13, 2009). The behavioral perspective is the idea that people’s actions and behaviors are based on what they have learned. Watson and Skinner were both important people in the behaviorist field (Ciccarelli & White, p. 14, 2009). Humanistic approach to psychology is a newer approach than the other two and the most famous founders of the approach are Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow. The humanistic approach emphasizes free will and human potential to change. Gestalt started the cognitive perspective on psychology with his studies of thought. “Cognitive perspective with its focus on memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language and learning has become a major force in psychology (Ciccarelli & White, p. 15, 2009)”. Sociocultural psychology tries to explain the context of behavior and how it is influenced by society (Ciccarelli & White, p. 15, 2009). The idea that behavior is caused by genetics, hormones, and body chemistry is biopsychiatry. Biopsychiatry is becoming an extremely important field, because of the possibility now to find mental illnesses with brain scans. (Ciccarelli & White, p. 16, 2009). Darwin is the most famous evolutionary psychiatrist. Evolutionary psychiatry is the study of the evolutionary basis of human behavior (Ciccarelli & White, p. 16, 2009). The last psychiatric theory is not mentioned in the text book but it is the feminist theory. The feminist theory explores gender roles, and gender bias (K. Hoecker, class lecture, 2010).
It is important to know about the different perspectives on psychiatry because they have different beliefs and treatment models. If a person is planning on going into the psychiatric field they would need to know the different types of psychiatry and which one meets their personality and belief system. What Does the Brain...